Kynda class cruisers (1961-63)

Groznyy, Admiral Fokin, Admiral Golovko, Varyag

Kynda
Kynda

The four ships of the Kynda class were the first Soviet missile cruisers. They were from the outset (1956) designed to destroy American aircraft carriers by other and more modern means than Stalin's traditional attachment to conventional artillery. This position was very mush argued and pushed foward tirelessly by Admiral Kuznetsov. He wanted a technological edge to compensate for the lack of classic firepower. What was left of the Soviet Navy in WW2 has been destroyed during the conflict and the 1950s generation was still very much conventional. The missile, pioneered by German engineers notably during the last decade, was now clearly the way forward, rather than raining down shells on a distant target, more difficult to see beyond 40 km.

Under the rainbow
Soviet missile development started, notably for antiship missiles, at МКБ Радуга (Raduga Design Bureau or MKD Raduga), literraly "rainbow". It was the fomer OKB-2, based at Dubla, near Moskow. Today it's part of the huge Russian Tactical Missiles Corporation. Formely a division of the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau, it was made independent as an OKB (or design bureau) in March 1957; but started development of missile way before. In 1947, it started development of the KS-1 Komet (AS-1 "Kennel"), followed by the K-10S (AS-2 "Kipper"), much heavier, and mostly airborne. By default of a nuclear warhread, the 940 kg was reputed able to severely damage an aircraft carrier. Each TU-16 carried two under the wings and they were almost as large as a MiG-15. A whole serie of airborne antiship missiles were developed afterwards, the Kh/KSR airborne series, the ship-to-ship lineage was rather slim, with just the P-15 Termit (SS-N-2 "Styx"), and from 1984, the ramjet P-270/3M80 Moskit (SS-N-22 "Sunburn").

Genesis of the Kynda class cruisers

The appearance of the project 58 missile cruisers in the Soviet Navy resulted from the will of Soviet naval leadership to find an asymmetric weapon able to re-establish a balance. Design bureaus received a wealth to push R&D for nuclear energy and guided missile weaponry. Missiles were destined to compensate for the only response to USN Task Forces, coastal-based aircraft, easy to shot down. Above all, USN and NATO aircraft carriers and amphibious formations made for a prime target.

Work started on the future "Kreiser" in 1956. By December 6, 1956, the head of the Navy S. G. Gorshkov approved the defined tactical and technical requirements for a guided missile destroyer. Earlier in October development started on the Volna and P-35 air defense systems, which can be installed on the future ships as well, providing a welcome protection. Development of project 58 was entrusted to TsKB-53 (Chief designer V. A. Nikitin) and the first draft was approved in September 1957, sanctioned by the Navy's Shipbuilding Department order for further development prepared by March 1958.



The first batch's blueprints stated "ships with jet weapons", a vague wording highlighting the ambiguity of the classification. Its semi-experimental nature also reflected the attitude of the leadership and preferrence back then towards cruisers. From 1960, the mismatch between tactical objectives and armament was further discussed in the fleet's hierachy and final classification of project 58 was stopped by 22, 1962. N. S. Khrushchev was then indeed paying a visit to Grozny, and the first successful missile firing took place. Therefore by November 4, 1962, the enthusiasm of the new leader made for a definitive classification as a "missile cruiser". Blueprints were prepared to built no less than sixteen Project 58 cruisers, whereas eventually only four were built, one for each fleets (Baltic, Pacific, Arctic, Black sea). This was notably caused by a priority change, directed towards anti-submarine warfare.

Specifications of the Kynda class


Differences between the ships before and after the 1980s refit. The most obvious are the four new Gatling-style guns mounted on a bay covering the sides of the forward bridge. Notice also a new antenna on the mainmast, new superstructure alongside the aft mast and added structure with AA gun in between masts and TT banks. Unknown origin, Pinterest.

Propulsion

The powerplant was a new system alike the Kashin-class, combining turbines powered by four supercharged boilers. Due to reduced hull size, this powerplant was "only" able to give these ships a speed of 34 knots. The arrangement combined a boiler and a turbine placed in echelon principle in two machine rooms. There was a great innovation as for the first time high-pressure boilers used a newly-developed turbocharged pressurization. The KVN-95/64 boilers made it possible to double the output while reducing consumption by 30% and increase the efficiency by 10%. It was made by conceding efficiency at small and medium speeds. Also this new arrangement allowed to reduce the exhaust temperature by 60%, reducing greatly the infrared silhouette of the ships.

TV-12 Steam turbines were used in turbo-gear assemblies and differed from Destroyer's TV-8 turbines by offering 1/4 more power, with 35% less specific gravity and higher efficiency, but keeping the same dimensions. It was ideal for these rather small "cruisers". The while machinery could be controlled remotely from pressurized cabins as well. Onboard electricity was obtained from two TD-750 turbogenerators (750 kW) connected to two DG-500 diesel generators (500 kW each), generating a 380 V three-phase alternating current.



ADMIRAL GOLOVKO
Project 58, 1997, VVK

Main armament of the Kynda class

While the ship's power was innovative, above the machinery deck the ship was nothing short of revolutionary, entirely designed to be a missile carrier and operating platform. The idea was, to ensure maximum efficiency, to deliver a deadly "volley" of eight P-35 (NATO SS-N-3 Shaddock cruise missiles. They were long-range (250 nm) vectors, and their launching tube could be refilled by eight other vectors stored in back superstructure containers. In fact, the bridge was built above them. On paper this was a double volley of 24 vectors, which was formidable, but reloading operations took time and care in good sea conditions only. SS-N-3 mssiles could be loaded in addition with a tactical or conventional nuclear warhead. however their onboard radar was only good for the initial phase and they relied on their final course, to the guidance of a Tupolev Tu-95 "Bear-D". This was in the end, a combined operation.

Varyag 1989
Cruiser Varyag in 1989

The P-35 anti-ship missile system was developed at OKB-52 (later Raduga design bureau), a version of the P-6 anti-ship missile developed for submarines. The P-35 was heavier, longer and larger, but did not possessed an air intake and conical body. The P35 was 9.8 m long for 86 cm in diameter and having a wingspan of 2.67 m, for an overall weight of 4200-4500 kg. It was down to 3800 kg wen hitting the target. It carried a 560 kg warhead, including a TNT load of 405 kg. One of fourth missile was given a tactical nuclear warhead. Altitude and speed settings were possible, either 400, 4000 and 7000 m high, and 100 to 300 km range, flying at 1.3 mach.

Guidance was done at first by the ship's operator, and there was one was controlling each missile in homing mode, so eight operators total. The extra missiels were considered in fact as a reserve, not specifically to deliver two volleys, as confidence in these early guidance systems and operations was low, as well as accuracy at long distances. The operators followed their vector after launch by using Binom radar antennas, turned after some distance to a guiding radar, providing data to the operator, analyzing the radar image which still could send instructions in fight for correction courses. Four antennas for the Binom control system on board only made possible a four-missile salvo at a time. The remaining four still could be launched, but stayed in homing mode, so with much lower hit probability.

Each of the massive SM-70 launchers platform carried four tubes. They could rotate to 120° and elevate to 25° and take position in less than 90 seconds at a rate of 5°/sec. for traversing. To avoid the exhausts burning the superstructure or damaging the ship, it was to head perpendicular to the enemy. On paper it was sound, but the installation was heavy and complicated to operate and the Kynda were the only ships (with the kirivak class) to try this system in the Soviet Navy. Their weight could cause stability issues and was only possible on a still sea. Also, the eight spare missiles in their cells behind the launcher were difficult to operate on the high seas and the whole operation required a calm sea, for more than an hour. This preventing any efficient use in the North sea an Artctic, especially in Winters. Later, NATO experts concluded the ships could only perform two volleys of four but in a war situation, reloading time and conditions would have made the ship a prime target, likely to be destroyed by carrier aviation and missiles.

AA Armament of the Kynda class

Anti-aircraft defence was provided by a M-1 Volna missile system, a navalized version of the S-125 Neva and DP guns. NATO knew it was the SA-N-1 "Goa". It was a short-range missile twin launcher, with sixteen vectors in reserve in two under-deck drum sets, but with very relative efficiency (as the range augmented). This was complemented by two AA gun plus four fast firing anti-missile guns. M-1 Volna ("Wave") V-600 SAM

The M-1 Volna air defense system two-frame launcher was located in the bow, in front of the SM-70 launcher. It could launch its two missiles every minute. They were guided by the “Yatagan” control system, a single-channel radar, providing guidance of either, or both missiles, but at one target. There was also a sharp decrease in firing accuracy over long distances. The B-600 missile was 5.88 m long, weighted 923 kg and carried a 60 kg warhead with a proxiity fuse, as a flight speed of 600 m/s. Range was 4000-15,000 over the sea and up to 100-10,000 meters in altitude.
Despite its limitation this system was considered reliable enough and was soon in widespread use on many ships. The mssiles were in addition modernized over time, and managed to remain in service until the 2000s. In the mid-1960s, improvements were made through training to reach proficiency against sea targets within the radio horizon, just in case.

SAN-1 missile launcher
SAN-1 missile launcher, close view, on a Kashin class DD.

ASW armament of the Kynda class
The ASW defense revolved around two triple banks of acoustic torpedo tubes, plus two RBU 6000 rocket launchers (12 rockets each), reloaded vertically, and weighing 3.1 tons. Each 213 mm rocket weighted 75 Kgs and were given a 23 kgs HE warhead. The RSL-60 had rocket weighted 113 kg and could hit submarines underwater raging from 15 to 450 m. All 12 rockets were fired in 5 seconds. It was automatically adjustable, exploding with a magnetic fuse by proximity. For aiming, coordinates were managed by an electronic console, taking its information from the hull's sonar. The ASW command was given to the Storm firing control system and the firing range was 300-5800 m. Classic depth charges were also carried. Given the very modest range of detection of the sonar Hercules-2 GAS, the RBU-6000 was quite sufficient to deal with modern nuclear submarines. This was complemented by a Kamov Ka-25 "Hormone" helicopter parked on the stern deck spot. However there were no hangar limiting its operations in the north sea and arctic.

Ak-726 guns
The artillery was initially planned to be two dual purpose AK-726 universal twin mounts aft according to the early linearly blueprint scheme. This became at that time the standard medium-caliber system, mainstream in the fleet in the 1960s. It was developed by TsKB-7 in 1957-1958, passed all to be accepted in service in 1962. Therefore the Project 58 cruisers were the first to inaugurate these.

Each mount had two 76.2 mm automatic guns placed in a common cradle, in a lightly armored turret. Rate of fire was 90 rounds per minute, per barrel, so 180 in all. However continuous fire was limited to 45 rounds, in order to watercool the barrels. Each shell weighted 5.9 kg and can reach 15.7 km total or 11 km in ceiling. Each turret weighted 26 tons. However this was limited by the single installation of a MP-105 system controlling it. Therefore the two turret could only concentrate on one same target at a time. In addition to air defense small ships could be effectively destroyed (like fast attack crafts) by the AK-726. Jet aircraft however were still a threat to the ships as the rate of fire an guidance were limited, and the projectile too light to do serious damage.

Admiral Fokin circa 1995 Admiral Fokin circa 1995, a ship of the Kynda class. The photo shows the huge anti-ship missile ramps and their reloading hangars whose hatches are visible behind.

Active service of the Kynda class

The four Kynda class ships were laid down at Zhdanov shipyard in 1960-61 and completed in 1962-65, then classified as missile cruisers (RKR). The class comprised the Grozny, Admiral Fokin, Admiral Golovko, and Varyag. The latter served in the Baltic Sea, the Golovko in the Black Sea fleet, and the other two in the Pacific. Due their small sizes and many limitations the arctic was not provided such ship indeed. In 1990, they were still active, even if they had been long eclipsed by more formidable ships like the Slava class, designed for the same purpose. They were removed from service in 1990, 1991, and 1993 respectively.

Grozny

The "Terrible" after entering service, took her first commission of the Northern Fleet. She was based in Severodvinsk (Baltic) from July 6, 1962. On July 22, N. S. Khrushchev assisted to the successful launch of two her her P-35 anti-ship missiles. The same year she undertook many further tests in the Baltic, second stage. Nex year, by August 10, 1963 she joined the naval base of Severomorsk where she would be based permently. On July 25, 1965 she took part in a large naval parade in Leningrad, for 'Navy Day', and was first introduced to the Soviet public. NATO already had some knowledge of her, giving them the name "Kynda class" for which they are known in Western litterature.

By September 20, 1966, she changed affectation to Sevastopol, joining Black Sea Fleet. She made many cruises in the Mediterranean, visited several ports. In 1968 she participated in the movie "Neutral Waters" (1969), playing the ficticious cruiser "Prideful". From 1976 to 1982, she was modernized and overhauled at the Sevmorzavod Yard of Sevastopol. Grozny received a brand new new electronic, suite, and four ZAK AK-630M fully automatic anti-missile, close range 30 mm Gatling style guns. In June-September 1982 she was part of the multinational force off the coast of Syria that kept a watchful eye on the the Lebanon war. She provided support to the Syrian armed forces.

By December, 26, 1983 she returned to the Baltic Fleet. She participated in intense combat training, and returned in the Mediterranean Sea in 1985−1986. She was sjadowing American aircraft carrier groups. By April 1989 she was being overhauled and maintained at the shipyard No. 29 in Liepaja hwever work progressed slowly and by the mid-1990 it ceased. As USSR desintegrated, attempts to tow her to Kaliningrad were forbidden by the new Latvian authorities. by July 9, 1991, Grozny was discarded from the lists but stayed, rotting, at the berth of the yard, and eventually sank in March 1993. She had been completely stripped of equipment by the locals, and was later raised by the Latvians and sold as scrap metal.

Admiral Fokin

After entry into service, Fokin joined the Pacific Fleet, taking commission in the summer of 1965 while on the Northern Sea Route. She served in the Pacific and Indian Ocean but was never upgraded and on June 30, 1993 she was discarded and transferred for disposal, to be latter scrapped.

Admiral Golovko

Golovko entered service with the Northern Fleet. However by June 1967 she served in the Mediterranean, assisting the armed forces of Egypt against Israel (six days war). On 22 March 1968 she was transferred to the Black Sea Fleet to be closer to action. In 1982-1989, she was modernization at Sevmorzavod in Sevastopol along the same line as the Grozny. She was discarded from the fleet's lists in December 2002 and scrapped in Inkerman in 2003-2004.

Varyag

Varyag ("Varangian", the old Rus and Viking guards of Byzantine emperors) served with the Pacific Fleet. She also made trips in the Indian Ocean and during the third Indo-Pakistani war, under the command of Captain Andrei Andreyevich Pinchuk and her naval group, she kept afar the nearest US Navy Task Force, to intervene on the side of Pakistan. By 1975-1981, she was modernized at Dalzavod (Vladivostok) her radio equipments and electronics being partially replaced and four ZAK AK-630M installed. By 19 April 1990 se was discarded, transferred for disposal and scrapped afterwards.

Evaluation of the project 58 missile cruisers

They were the first Soviet missile cruisers and innovated on many points, bringing a considerabe asset to the fleet as "carrier-killers". They were a completely revolutionary design, with a very powerful armament, ensuring the success of her combat missions. However she was also far too small, rocky and not agile, yet cheap for their significant combat potential. Her drawbacks were many: A weak protection against air attacks (two planes could significantly harm her), and compounded to this, the Kynda class were given a slow-firing Volna air defense system, with a primitive single-channel guidance, also only capable to deal with a single aircraft at a time and with an insufficient rang. She also had constructive protection. Many vital command organs were left unprotected.

Another problem were the eight combat-ready missiles due to, again, limited guidance of 4 remote control systems. Volley were to be successive, reducing hit probability while passing air defense, or "wasting" the second volley simultaneously in homing guidance, in the hop to saturate defenses. Reloading proved inefficient and too risky and so a second wave of volleys out in the open sea was virtually impossible. Also the ships were distributed along three fleets, and could not be at sea anytime or support themselves in case of a of an enemy concentration.

Kynda class illustration
Author's illustration of the Kynda

Specifications of the Kynda class

Displacement: 4400t, 5600t FL
Dimensions: 141,7 x 16,8 x 5,30m
Propulsion: 2 propellers, 2 turbines, 4 chau HP., 100,000 hp. et 34 knots max.
Crew: 390
Electronics: Radars: 2 Don-2, 2 Head-net A/C, 2 Scoop Pair, Peel group, Owl Screech, 2 Plinth net, sonar Herkules, 3 CME Bell, 4 Top hat.
Armament: 2x4 LM SSN3 (16), 1x2 LM SAN1 (16), 4 canons de 76 mm (2x2), 6 TLT 533 mm (2x3), 2 LR ASM RBU 6000 (24).

Naval History

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USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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