USS Norfolk (DL-1)

US Navy Flag Ocean Escort (Cruiser)

The USS Norfolk (Destroyer Leader 1) was a new type of large oceanic escort vessel, a new generation of very large destroyer, later reclassified as a cruiser. Launched in 1951 and completed in 1953, the new ship was tailored to track and hunt down the Soviet "Whiskey" class submarines, which performances were estimated at least as good as the WW2 German Type XXI. Nevertheless, USS Norfolk soon appeared too costly and too large as a concept while the role of destroyer leader was now largely obsolete. A sister ships, CLK-2, was never ordered, and after having trouble find her place in the US Navy, USS Norfolk was deactivated in 1973 and stricken.

norfolk-bow-view-key-west-FL
same
Fire testing of ASROC by USS Norfolk off Key West (Florida)

The first attempt of an ocean escort

The lessons of WW2 were barely digested in 1946 when the US admiralty started to have a look at the new instrument of the task force centered around an aircraft carrier. It appeared that battleships or cruisers were neither really well tailored to bring the optimum all-round support, while destroyers lacked range to be effective. This led to the search for a new type (which remained to be defined), collectively known as the "escort". It could be either an ocean escort or a fleet escort. Both frigates and modernized WW2 destroyers were given the denomination Ocean Escort (Destroyer).

USS Norfolk underway circa 1954
USS Norfolk underway circa 1954

But it was felt that a larger ship, mid-size between a true cruiser (at the time, an all-big gun conventional model, tailored for anti-ship combat) and an AA/ASW escort. The second option was chosen, a sort of "super destroyer", with long range and enough speed, but at the same time only light dual purpose and AA armament, and a generous ASW suite. It was assumed that the size of the new vessel made it suitable to house command facilities as well, so as to be used as destroyer leader.

Design development of the new ship future "DL 1" for "destroyer leader", started in April-May 1946 under the project SCB 1. It was eventually authorized in 1947 as CLK-1. It was designed as a large anti-submarine hunter killer ship capable of operating under all weather conditions and large enough to carry the latest and best radar, sonar, and electronics available. She was designed on a light cruiser hull so to carry a large variety of detection gear, far more than a destroyer. It was estimated that this long range detection would make it able to coordinate destroyers attacks on ASW targets. The design was refined again in 1948, and almost all the way to the summer of 1949, with numerous designs submitted an back-and-forth discussions between BuShips and the admiralty. The basic model was the WW2 Atlanta class cruisers.

blueprint front
Front section blueprint. SRC

The last design was eventually retained and USS Norfolk, the largest ship ordered post-WW2, was eventually laid down on 1st September 1949 at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation in Camden (New Jersey). The new cruiser was launched on 29 December 1951 but was soon reclassified as destroyer leader (DL-1). During the ceremony she was sponsored by Miss Betty King Duckworth. USS Norfolk was eventually commissioned on 4 March 1953. Her first captain was Clarence Matheson Bowley.

Design of USS Norfolk

South Boston annex and army base, circa 1958
South Boston annex and army base, circa 1958, Norfolk can be seen in the upper left corner

Measuring 164 m overall (540 feets) for 16.3 m (53 feets 6 inches) was rather long and narrow, with the same ratio as a destroyer and a high prow, long flush-deck hull and transom stern, making her a good sea-going vessel, at relative ease in heavy weather. She also had a design mid-way between a light cruiser and a destroyer, with long superstructures not interrupted by torpedo tubes banks but boats, two funnel, a relatively tall bridge, and two superfiring gun positions fore and aft plus AA mounts. She had torpedo tubes, but to have her decks clean, they were all fixed along the hull, four per side. Needless to say, she had no armour but internal compartimentation and triple hull for a part of the hull. Also she benefited a lot from the Bikini nuclear test: Notably special efforts were made to permit fallout to wash from her decks and her bridgework was fully enclosed for better protection, while seals were placed on all doors, not only those of the deck level. In short, she was the first USN NBC warship.

USS_Norfolk_bow_view_in_1955

Powerplant

USS Norfolk was propelled by two shafts connected to steam turbines, fed by four Babcock & Wilcox boilers for a total output of 80,000 hp. Due to her moderate tonnage of 5,550 tonnes fully loaded, hull ratio and fine lines, she was able to reach 33 knots. Range was tailored for the Atlantic at 6,000 nautical miles at cruise speed (20 knots). As part of her ASW role, her propellers were unusually large and apparently shaped in a way to allow them to turn slower and therefore quieter as well.

Armament

3-in/70 (76 mm) gun turrets circa 1962
3-in/70 (76 mm) gun turrets circa 1962

It looked weak at first glance giving her size and tonnage:
Four twin 3-in/50: In two position fore and aft, superfiring. This standard mount was designed in 1945 as an intermediate between the 5-in and 40 mm Bofors for its stopping power. The 3"/50 (7.62 cm) Mark 22 was placed in a semi-enclosed Mark 33 mount. They were replaced by still experimental 3 in/70 models later in 1950. For details, check the cold war USN section.

Four twin 20 mm/70: Standard twin-mount Oerlikon gun, placed at the stern deck, two on each side.
Eight 21-in TT: Like the 21" (53.3 cm) Mark 35: 13 ft 5 in long with a 270 lbs. (122.5 kg) HBX warhead, able to reach 15,000 yards (13,710 m) at 27 knots guided by Active and passive acoustic with spiral search. These were in fact her primary ASW weapons. These acoustic models were all grouped together in the aft superstructure behind the aft funnel. Four 'Weapon Alfa': Four turrets, two aft in tandem, two forward in a pair (port and starboard). Basically a turreted mortar. More info here and on naweaps. This was the second layer of ASW combat capabilities, shorter range.
This armament was modified during her career, see her active service records.

USS Norfolk ASROC system
USS Norfolk's ASROC system

Sensors

The USS Norfolk benefited from the very best electronic equipments of her time: The latest radar and latest sonar, upgraded twice during her career.
In addition to the sonars she also had decoys systems, quite novel at the time, also experimented. USS Norfolks digital Computer
USS Norfolk's digital Computer

USS Norfolk underway
USS Norfolk underway

USS Norfolk as completed

Dimensions158,5 wl/164.6 wl x 16.3 x 5.8m (540 ft x 53 ft x 19 ft)
Displacement4,956t, 5,556t FL Fully Loaded
Propulsion2 shafts geared turbines, 4 boilers, 80,000 hp, 33 knots.
Range1,230t fuel, 6,000 nmi/20 knots
Armament:4x2 3in, 4x2 20mm AA, 4x Weapon Alfa ASWRL, 8x 533m TTs
Electronics:Radar SQS-6, Sonars QHB, SQG-1
Crew546

USS Norfolk in service 1953-73

badge USS Norfolk was seen as an experimental ship since her early conception, and served with the Operational Test and Evaluation Force. When introduced, she was the test ship for the ASROC weapons system, the SPS-26 electronically scanned Radar, prototype of the SPS-39. In 1959, conversion as a Terrier missile cruiser was proposed as part as the same upgrade envisioned for the Mitscher and Sherman classes, with the smaller Tartar. But this was dropped because of the high cost of the conversion, while not sticking to her ASW role. In addition tat the time this was still considered highly unreliable as a weapon.

ASROC loaded
ASROC system being reloaded, tested for the first time onboard a USN vessel.

1960 Early service

patch After her Caribbean shakedown cruise (February 1954), Norfolk was assigned to the U.S. Atlantic Fleet. In 1955 and 1957 she served successively as flagship for Commander Destroyer Flotillas 2, 4, and 6, befitting her denomination ad initial role. In 1956-1957 she acted as flagship for all the whole Commander Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet. In June 1957, she participated in the International Fleet Review (as flagship) bearing the mark of Admiral Jerauld Wright, Ci-in-C of the Atlantic Fleet, and Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic for NATO. In late 1955 she suffered a boiler explosion. She was repaired soon after. In 1957, she received her new radar SPS-26. In 1959 Norfolk saw one of her numerous modifications: Her eight 3 inch/50 which were provisional, were replaced by the 3"/70 Mark 37 caliber guns first planned in 1950, while her twin 20 mm battery was removed entirely, seen as obsolete against modern jets. Her GHG, QHB, QXB sonar suite were replaced by the more modern SQS-4 sonar.

USS_Bushnell_and_USS_Norfolk_KeyWest
USS Norfolk and Bushnell off Key West

1960 Modernization and later career

In 1960, the addition of an ASROC launcher enhanced her antisubmarine capabilities. This was the first time this weapon system was tested in the US Navy, on a ship. It was placed aft, instead of the former two tandem 324mm Mk 108 Weapon Alfa ASWRL. The two forward ones were kept. The ASROC fired eight RUR-5 torpedo-missiles.

On 10 May 1960, when deployed off Cuban waters, she was harassed dangerously by a 83-foot Cuban vessel while she was patrolling the Florida Straits with USS The Sullivans. In Fall 1961, she took part in the NATO exercise UNITAS II as flagship, Commander Cruiser Destroyer Flotilla 2. During it, she was involved in a realistic ASW training with the navies of Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. USS Norfolk reproduced this routine over the next five years (until 1965), always as flagship, Commander South Atlantic Forces. In 1962 however she became flagship, Commander Cruiser Destroyer Forces Atlantic Fleet. In 1965, she served again, and for the last time as flagship, this was UNITAS VI.

In 1966, USS Norfolk joined LANTFLEX 66, as flagship again, which was held between 28 November and 16 December. This exercise saw her shadowing two Russian trawlers, "Repiter" and "Teodilit". In fall 1967, she demonstrated valuable antisubmarine capabilities again as flagship, Commander South Atlantic Forces (Exercise UNITAS VIII). USS Norfolk was deployed next in the Mediterranean: She became Flagship, Commander Middle East Force from 17 April to 15 October 1968. She visited Bahrain and Somaliland as well as Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia but also stopped in Kenya, passed the Suez canal, stopped in the Seychelles, visited Mauritius, Madagascar, India, Pakistan, Australia, New Zealand, Tahiti, Mexico, and Panama Canal Zone to be back in the Atlantic. This was her largest and longest operational cruise, and a sort of farewell tour as well as her operational life reached an end for the Operational Test and Evaluation Force.

In October 1968, having northing more to test, and being a design largely seen as experimental, USS Norfolk returned to Norfolk for decommission, which was acted on 15 January 1970. She entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, mothballed. Four years later, on 1 September 1974, she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register. She was soon sold for scrap.


USS John.W.Weeks returns to Naval Station Norfolk, with USS Norfolk anchored nearby, December 1967

Legacy:

Her sister ship DL-2 was projected, affected to the yard New Haven as N°489, then deferred and eventually cancelled cancelled in 9.1951 in favor of smaller and less expensive Mitscher-class destroyers. The projected cost of her construction was indeed $61.9 million. Norfolk remained in effective a one ship class experiment testing ASW weaponry and flotilla management as well as other concepts.

As for USS Norfolk's remains, two of her 3in/70 gun mounts were saved and are displayed now at the Naval Training Center in Orlando, Florida, later hosted by Boca Raton Community High School's NJROTC. They long stayed at the football field in Boca Raton then were moved to Naval Station Norfolk by November 2020. Volunteers helped their refection for a display in front of Commander Naval Surface Force Atlantic headquarters. The ship's bell is in Norfolk, Virginia, St. Paul's Boulevard (Elizabeth River waterfront) then Town Point Park and now in the Wisconsin Square, Norfolk.

USS John Willis (DE-1027) and USS Van Voorhis (DE-1028) underway off Argentinia in October 1965, seen from Norfolk's prow
USS John Willis (DE-1027) and USS Van Voorhis (DE-1028) underway off Argentinia in October 1965, seen from Norfolk's stern

Norfolk_and_USS_Newport_News_underway_in_the_mid-1950s
Norfolk_stern_view_in_1955
Norfolk__entering_port_circa_1957
Norfolk_underway_on_19_September_1957
underway_in_Hampton_Roads_6_September_1955
USS_Norfolk_DL-1_underway_c1964

Read More & Resources

Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1947-1995
Blackman, Raymond V. B. Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71)
Friedman, Norman (1982). U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History
//www.navypedia.org/ships/usa/us_cr_norfolk.htm
//www.navsource.org/archives/05/0201.htm
//www.nvr.navy.mil/SHIPDETAILS/SHIPSDETAIL_DL_1.HTML
//destroyerleaderassociation.org/ships/norfolkhistory.asp
//wikimapia.org/11385318/Deck-Guns-from-USS-Norfolk-DL-1
//destroyerhistory.org/coldwar/destroyerleaders/
//www.hullnumber.com/DL-1
//www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/alphabetical---donations0/n/2019-46-uss-norfolk--dl-1--photo-collection.html

The Models Corner
-1/700 Niko Model US Navy Destroyer Leader USS Norfolk DL-1 Resin Model Kit with Photo Etch
If you know about others, thanks to contact me.

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
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Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
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Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
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Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
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Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
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Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 大日本帝國海軍 Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Российский флот Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 中华帝国海军
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Hellenic Navy 1898 Πολεμικό Ναυτικό
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Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
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Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
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Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
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Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
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R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
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Parseval class sloops (1876)
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Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
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G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
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Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
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Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
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Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 大日本帝國海軍 German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Российский флот
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
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Agamemnon class (1879)
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Victoria class (1890)
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Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
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Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
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Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
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Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
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USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
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St Louis class AMC (1894)
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USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
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Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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