Douglas TBD Devastator (1935)

USN Dive Bomber (1935-42)

Best of its day, less in 1942

First line USN torpedo bomber in 1941-42, the Douglas TBD was caught before its replacement. Ordered in 1934, it entered service in 1937 and at the time, it was not only the most advanced USN aircraft, but possibly the most serious contender for the title of "world's best carrier-borne TB". The pace of aircraft development however caught up, and in June 1942 at Midway, the TBD reputation was destroyed while another Douglas, the Dauntless, won the day, in part because of how the events unfolded. Vastly outclassed for speed and agility while facing the Mitsubishi Zero, remaining TBDs were simply wiped out with little torpedo hits to their credits.

TBDs of VT-6 over Wake Island, 1942
TBDs of VT-6 over Wake Island, 1942

But like the Vindicator, simply outclassed, much of this underserved reputation for abysmal performances had been attributed to the grave defaults of the US Mark 13 torpedo after the war. The Devastator went on to serve in second line duties for the remainder of the war, and started to be replaced by its more famous successor, the Grumman TBF Avenger in 1942. Its name was launched in late 1941 for easier identification, "Devastator" stuck; however its popular nickname soon became "torpecker", most commonly used by sailors and pilots.

Initial development (1932-34)

XTBD-1

In 1933, a US Navy competition for new bombers based on aircraft carriers was initiated. Answering the call were companies such as Vought with its XSB2U Vindicator, Northrop with its BT-1, Brewster with its SBA and Douglas, with its XTBD-1. It was declared a co-winner with the Vought Devastator, and initially ordered on 30 June 1934. Also reviewed in a first turn were the Great Lakes XB2G and XTBG, the Grumman XSBF, Hall XPTBH and Vought XSB3U, which were not selected for further prototypes pre-production.

The XTBD Devastator first flew on 15 April 1935. Quite quickly its performances were judged very satisfactory with 332 kph in straight line at 2,000 m, about 350 in a dive, and it started to mark this year by its many innovations as well:
-First carrier-based monoplane
-First all-metal naval aircraft
-First with a completely enclosed cockpit
-First with hydraulically powered folding wings.
-First with a semi-retractable landing gear


XTBD prototype with its initial canopy

The XTBD passed the Navy examination from 24 April to 24 November 1935 at NAS (Naval Air Station) Anacostia and Norfolk bases. Some points were noted for correction: The flat canopy seemed to not procure enough visibility and was to be replaced in production by a higher domed canopy, complete with a rollover bar. It can be folded in three parts. Tests pilots indeed insisted on improving visibility and the engine needed to be improved, while it was recommended a revised engine cowling. But other than that, the prototype passed its acceptance trials with ease. Next, the prototype underwent torpedo drop tests which were also successful. Last step, for pre-production test, the XTBD was provisionally transferred to one of Lexington's TB group, for carrier certification. Thes extended trials went on until 1937, and later the first two production aircraft delivered by Douglas, were by it, exclusively for testing. The USN ordered a full production run indeed, called the TBD-1, for delivery and service in late 1937, with a 850 hp engine.

Deliveries went on from 1937 to 1939, 128 in all, 130 with the XTBD-1 prototype and a single experimental TBD-1A. With the two retained by Douglas, this left 126 delivered to VT-2 to VT-8, but also VB-4 VS-42, VS-71, VS-72, VU-3 and the US Marine Corps.

TBD-1A
Douglas TBD-1A: It was equipped with floats for testing, as for the Vindicator and Dauntless later. It was judged interesting to procure the navy a catapulted torpedo bomber, to the Currituck class still in service or the USS Curtiss. Later during the war, the US Navy would operate newly-built USS Currituck, Pine Island and Norton Sound, USS Tangier and Timbalier. With 130 built versus 9,900 Avengers, the Devastator seems to be a footnote of history, but it was the frontline US Navy dedicated torpedo bomber until the fateful battle of Midway, at mid-point during the war.

Vought TBD-1
Variants of the TBD-1, including the prototype and above, first paper proposal sketch

Design of the Devastator


The complete VT-2 squadron in flight training, 6 January 1942

General characteristics

Outside the modified "high visibility" roomy canopy, the Devastator had a favourable wing load ratio due to its large wings (Wing area 422 square feets, or 39.2 m2), allowing to carry heavy payloads (heavier than the actual aerial 18-in torpedoes of 1937). Among others, the choice of a semi-retractable landing gear, with wheels protruding 10 in below (250 mm) had the advantage of potentially limiting damage to the underbelly in case of force crash landing.
It had an overall length of 35 ft 0 in (10.67 m), a wingspan of 50 ft 0 in (15.24 m), a total height of 15 ft 1 in (4.60 m), ad it weighted 5,600 lb (2,540 kg) light, 9,289 lb (4,213 kg) fully loaded with an indicated max take-off weight of 10,194 lb (4,624 kg).

The crew comprised normally three men, the pilot at the front, a rear gunner/radio operator aft, and the bombardier in the middle seat. The latter in order to do its job layed prone, sliding into position under the pilot, and man his Norden bombsight seeing through a bottom fuselage window. This process was repeated, but with a permanent gondola for the Avenger. But it made the Devastator a bit "fattier" as a result, with a lower penetration coefficient, also cause by the taller greenhouse. A single torpedo was carried under the belly of the aircraft, activated by the bombardier.

Cockpit of the TBD-1 in 1937
Cockpit of the TBD-1 in 1937

Powerplant and Performances

The Devastator's powerplant was a Pratt & Whitney R-1830-64 (the prototype had the previous R-1830-60, 800 hp) Twin Wasp radial engine, which developed 850 hp (630 kW). The XR-1830-60/R-1830-1 was its predecessor. The final version of the 14 cylinder air cooled radial engine developed 900 hp and drove a 3-bladed variable-pitch propeller. Performances wise, its top speed at at 8,000 ft (2,400 m) was 206 mph (332 km/h, 179 kn), but normal cruise speed was limited to 128 mph (206 km/h). Its rate of climb was 720 ft/min (3.7 m/s) and its Service ceiling of 19,500 ft (5,900 m). The internal tanks procured enough gasoline for a range of 435 mi (700 km, 378 nmi) with the Mark 13 torpedo, and up to 716 mi (622 nmi; 1,152 km) with 1,000 lb (450 kg) bombs.

Armament


The XTBD prototype carrying 500 ibs bombs under the fuselage undersides in trials, 1935

The TBD was designed as a torpedo carrier first, and a bomber, but in standard strafing attack since it never was designed with diving in mind.
-Torpedo: 1,935 lb (878 kg) Bliss-Leavitt Mark 13 aerial model
-1,000 lb (450 kg) bomb carried semi-recessed fuselage underside.
-Three 500 lb (230 kg) general-purpose bombs (wing root, bomb bay)
-Twelve 100 lb (45 kg) fragmentation bombs (six under each wing root)
These were often used in the attacks of the Gilbert and Marshall Islands in 1942.
-Defensive armament: .30 in (7.62 mm) Browning machine gun, rear gunner.
-Offensive armament: Starboard side cowling .30 in (7.62 mm)/.50 in (12.7 mm) M2HB

TBD dropping a Bliss-Leavitt Mark 13 aerial torpedo
TBD dropping a Bliss-Leavitt Mark 13 aerial torpedo

The Devastator in service

The US Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer), impressed by the prototype ordered a batch of 129 of the first version for the squadrons based onboard USS Saratoga, Enterprise, Lexington, Wasp, Hornet, Yorktown and Ranger, from 1937 onwards. However in 1939 some were already reclassed in training duties or as target tugs. By 1940, the US Navy realized the Devastator was obsolete, whereas its replacement, the Grumman TBF Avenger, was still in development.

TBDs over Florida in 1942
TBDs over Florida in 1942

Early Operations

Due to attrition only 100 when serviceable in December 1941. During February-March 1942, nevertheless, TBDs from USS Enterprise and Yorktown did well nevertheless in the Marshall and Gilbert, Wake and Marcus Islands. Those from USS Yorktown and Lexington made proper work in New Guinea on 10 March. The Battle of the Coral Sea saw them hitting and co-sinking the aircraft carrier IJN Shōhō on 7 May, but failing to hit IJN Shōkaku a day afterwards. Many occasions were created, sometimes at great cost, but it as soon discovered too many of these "hits" translated into duds. Later, the Mark 13 fingers pointed due to their faulty contact exploder, while they had a tendency to run deeper than the set depth. Part of the great "torpedo scandal" proper to the US Ordnance, it took one full year to be admitted, then corrected, a bit sooner than the Mark 14.

The turkeys of Midway



The great test Battle of Midway was on 4 June 1942. By that time, these pilots took off, knowing they carried faultly torpedoes. A total of 41 Devastators were launched from USS Hornet, Enterprise and Yorktown, combined against the Japanese fleet's Kido Butai. Not only sorties were not well coordinated, rushed by Spruance as soon as the enemy carriers were discovered, rather than taking to time to assemble a large squadron in the air, with their escorts, so much was the fear the Japanese would arrive in the meantime. Therefore fighters, bombers and torpedo planes went in penny packets, dangerously exposed. TBDs from Hornet and Enterprise eventually lost contact with their fighter escort, but and started their attacks nonetheless. Soon, facing a swarm of zero fighters and furious AA, their deficiencies for that time (May 1942) were telling: Between their low speed and agility, poor armor and approach under 200 mph (320 km/h) made them easy meat and proved a death trap for their pilots. The torpedo was also responsible for this, as it needed to be released below 115 mph (185 km/h) for accuracy, which required a long, straight-line attack run. This made them easy targets, and as a result, only four made it back to the three careers. Not a single torpedo hit was recorded, but it's possible the few which effectively hits turned to be duds. A few also arrived so close as to launch their torpedoes and strafed the ships, and they forced the Japanese carriers to start sharp evasive maneuvers.





That was a great price to pay, but it was not all in vain: Their attack acted as a distraction for Japanese defense, while at high altitude, swarms of Dauntless had eventually assembled by miracle and arrived, also by miracle, coordinated over the fleet. The Japanese also had to keep their flight decks clear and to continually cycle, focusing on their own combat air patrols. In turn this much delayed their own counterstrike, which is something Spruance had anticipated. Late to the party, the Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bombers Lt.C. Wade McClusky and Max Leslie had a clear sky to hit three of the four Japanese carriers. The AA guns were turned at the sea and the defensive fighter patrols away when it all happened.

Retirement

A TBD in experimental camouflage in 1940
A TBD in experimental camouflage in 1940

The Navy withdrew its remaining 39 TBDs after their understandable debacle at Midway. These surviving Devastators stayed in VT-4 and VT-7, affected to Atlantic command, and in training squadrons until 1944. They were used to train both pilots and mechanics and some airframes were destroyed during instructional firefighting. In late 1944 the Navy had no Devastator left in the US Navy but the prototype survived at NAS Norman in Oklahoma. The last operational TBD-1 was used by Commander of Fleet Air Activities-West Coast, scrapped in November 1944 so nobody can see a preserved example today.

However the US Navy was not satisfied either by the new TBF Avenger after entering service as its early version was riddled with issues in 1942. At midway, the first deployed had little success: Only one of five ever scored a hit. They had better chance against the light carrier IJn Ryūjō and battleship IJN Hiei later that year. But over time, the planes improved, new aerial torpedoes were received as well as the fixed Mark 13, and pilots gained experience, as well as a better coordinated fighter cover. This all came together in the fall of 1943. So the more famous Avenger seemed a progress, but it was just a piece of a larger puzzle.


The replacement of the Devastator, the Grumman TBD Avenger, was an improvement, but still not as successful as anticipated at least until the end of 1943, somewhat redeeming the Douglas.

TBD-1 Specifications

Dimensions:10,67 x 15,24 x 4,60 m (35 x 50x 15 ft)
Weights:Empty/Gross/MTo weight: 5,600/9,289/10,194 lb
Crew:3: Pilot, Torpedo officer/navigator, Radio/Gunner
Propulsion: Pratt & Whitney R-1830-64 Twin Wasp 14-cyl. 2-row AC radial, 900 hp (670 kW)
Propeller:3-bladed variable-pitch propeller
Top/Cruise speed:206 (332 kph)/128 mph (206 kph) at 8,000 ft
Range:435 mi (700 km) torpedo/716 mi (1,152 km) 1,000 lb bombs
Service ceiling:23,600 ft (7,200 m)
Rate of climb:19,500 ft (5,900 m)
Time to altitude:720 ft/min (3.7 m/s)
ArmamentFixed fwd 0.3/0.5 in MG, pintle 0.3 in defense, see notes
Armor None


TBD_Devastator-2views

Src/Read more: Adcock, Al. TBD Devastator in Action, Aircraft Number 97. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1989.
Buell, Thomas B. The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press, 1987.
Cressman, Robert B. et al. A Glorious Page in Our History: The Battle of Midway, 4–6 June 1942. Missoula, MT: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1990.
"Devastator...The Not-so-Devastating TDB-1". Air International
Dolan, Edward F. Jr. Hollywood Goes to War. London: Bison Books
Doll, Thomas E. The Douglas TBD Devastator, Aircraft in Profile Number 171. Leatherhead, Profile Publications Ltd.
Doll, Thomas E. SB2U Vindicator in action, Aircraft Number 122. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1992.
Drendel, Lou. U.S. Navy Carrier Bombers of World War II. Carrollton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1987.
Ginter, Steve. Douglas TBD-1 Devastator, Naval Fighters Number Seventy-one. Simi Valley, California: Ginter Publishing Company, 2006.
Gunston, Bill. The Encyclopedia of the World's Combat Aircraft: A Technical Directory of Major Warplanes from World War 1 to the Present Day. Chartwell Books
Hardwick, Jack and Ed Schnepf. "A Viewer's Guide to Aviation Movies". The Making of the Great Aviation Films, General Aviation Series, Volume 2, 1989.
Jackson, B.R. and Thomas E. Doll. Douglas TBD-1 "Devastator", Aero Series 23. Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, 1973.
Kinzey, Bert. U.S. Navy and Marine Aircraft of World War II, Part 1: Dive and Torpedo Bombers. Northbrook, Illinois: Revell-Monogram, LLC, 2003.
Lawson, Robert and Barrett Tillman. U.S. Navy Dive and Torpedo Bombers of WWII. St. Paul, MN: MBI Publishing Company, 2001.
Mondey, David. "Douglas TBD Devastator." The Hamlyn Concise Guide to American Aircraft of World War II. London: Bounty Books, 2006.
Nowicki, Jacek. Douglas TBD Devastator – SBD Dauntless (Wydawnictwo Militaria 119) (in Polish). Warszawa, Poland: Wydawnictwo Militaria, 2000.
Orriss, Bruce. When Hollywood Ruled the Skies: The Aviation Film Classics of World War II. Hawthorne, California: Aero Associates Inc., 1984.
Parshall, Jonathan B. and Anthony P. Tully. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 2005.
Taylor, John W.R. "Douglas TBD Devastator". Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the Present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969.
Tillman, Barrett. "Go in and get a hit!: The Navy's last combat torpedo bombers." Airpower, Volume 3, No. 4, July 1973.
Tillman, Barrett. TBD Devastator Units of the U.S. Navy, Combat Aircraft Vol. 20. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2000.
Tillman, Barrett and Robert L. Lawson. U.S. Navy Dive and Torpedo Bombers of WWII. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001.
Winchester, Jim. "Douglas TBD Devastator." Aircraft of World War II (The Aviation Factfile). Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004.

Sites: Naval Historical Center archives
Same, color photos at Midway
www.daveswarbirds.com/usplanes/aircraft/devastat.htm
www.aviation-history.com/douglas/tbd.html
On popular mechanics
On tripod
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Douglas_TBD_Devastator
commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Douglas_TBD_Devastator
Gallery: VT3, USS Lexington, 1939
VT-2, USS Lexington, 1939

VT-3, USS Saratoga, 1939
VT-3, USS Saratoga, 1939

VT-5 USS Yorktown 1939
VT-5 USS Yorktown 1939

VT-6 USS Enterprise 1940 VT-6 USS Enterprise 1940

VT-6 Kwajalein raid, 1st February 1942.
VT-6 Kwajalein raid, 1st February 1942. Note the prewar roundel and striped tail

TB-1 6-T-II of VT-6 in May 1942
TB-1 6-T-II of VT-6 in May 1942. They just had been repainted for the original tactical light grey overall

Douglas TBD-1 Devastator of VT2 at the batttle of Coral Sea May 1942
Douglas TBD-1 Devastator of VT2 at the batttle of Coral Sea May 1942


VT-6 (USS Enteprise), personal plane of Lt. Cdr Eugene Lindsay, Midway June 1942


TBD-1 at NAS Corpus Christi, Texas, August 1942


TBD-1s served at NAS Miami, from 29 October 1942 to 31 December 1943 as advanced trainers.

Photos

(Bureau # 0297), of Torpedo Squadron Five (VT-5) With a wrinkled fuselage, following a landing accident on USS Yorktown (CV-5), 3 September 1940. The after end of the carrier's island is in the background. This aircraft was ultimately assigned to Torpedo Squadron Eight (VT-8), and was lost in the Battle of Midway on 4 June 1942. Courtesy of Thomas E. Doll. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph.[/caption]

























Douglas_TBD-1_Devastators_of_VT-6_are_spotted_for_launch_aboard_USS_Enterprise_4_June_1942_Midway

TBD_Devastators_of_VT-2_in_flight_c1938

TBD2-T-17oct38

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Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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