South Carolina class battleships (1908)

USA - (1908) USS South Carolina, Michigan

The first American dreadnoughts

These first American dreadnoughts were considered hybrid ships, of dimensions and construction similar to those of previous conventional battleships, while having a monocaliber configuration. For budgetary reasons, the Senate demanded that its tonnage remain limited to 16,000 tons, with a speed of 16 knots, only sufficient in comparison with the future battle-cruisers in project. But these compromises made the USS South Carolina and the USS Michigan relegated to the pre-dreadnoughts category, and saw little action in ww1.

uss_south_carolina_new_york_navy_yard

Development history

As a new breed, the BB-26 was also the 26th battleship in line with the latest design, the USS Mississippi-class. These two ships were 13,000 tonnes, but faster (17 knots), still armed with only 2x2 12 inches guns, and a mix of 8 in (203 mm), 7 in (178 mm) to deal with cruisers, and 3 in (76 mm) to deal with TBDs. There were 116 m (382 feets) in length, 23 m (77 feets) in width. All these elements are given for comparison. These were launched in September and December 1905 and commissioned in 1908. However their design still inspired a lot the following BB-26.

brasseys1912_south-carolina

Just like their British counterparts, American naval theorists proposed that a ship mounting a homogeneous battery of large guns would be more effective in battle. This started with the Naval War College conference of 1904 that compared three Bs designs. Prior to that already Naval Institute's Proceedings 1902 magazine article from Lieutenant Matt H. Signor proposed a mixed 2x3 13 in (330 mm), and 2x3 10 in (254 mm) of the same 40 calibers, for a total of four triple turrets arrangement.

It was criticized by the Bureau of Construction and Repair (C&R) as unfeasible. However Homer Poundstone, USN Lieutenant Commander was the driving force between the all-big-gun design, arguing his case directly to President Theodore Roosevelt. His design however, was a twelve 11-inch (279 mm) guns, 19,000 tons ship, (Proceedings 1903), the same year Vittorio Cuniberti's design was out in Jane's. His design was eventually accepted after the 1904 Newport Conference.

uss_south_carolina_bb-26-1910

The Congress however only gave an agreement for a Connecticut class-derived design at least 2,000 long tons (2,032 t) smaller than foreign standards like the HMS Dreadnought. This obliged to take many compromises and shortcuts in design and received as expected a cold reception by most naval architects. Eventually both were ordered almost the same day (17-18 December) at William Cramp and Sons and the New York Shipbuilding Corporation, launched in May and June 1908 and commissioned in January and March 1910 (The Michigan keel was laid down earlier, it was also commissioned earlier, the class is therefore also called "class Michigan").

Design

The design was managed by Rear Admiral Washington L. Capps, which however did the best he could with these limitations. One of these shortcuts was the re-use of the 12-inch (305 mm)/45 caliber Mark 5 guns already found on the Connecticut and Mississippi classes. Although of a proven design they lacked range compared to their British equivalents. Of course the main innovation was their superfiring arrangement. Next to these, the intermediary 178-203 mm artillery has been deleted in favor of the only 3 inches rapid-fire guns to deal with destroyers and TBDs, twenty-two in all, placed in casemates. In addition here were two underwater side torpedo tubes.

uss_south_carolina_1914

Armour scheme was described by Siegfried Breyer (a naval author) as "remarkably progressive". However it still lacked horizontal and underwater sufficient protection. It ranged from 254 to 305 mm (10-12 in). Propulsion was covered by 229-279 mm (9-11 in), forward magazines front by 203-254 mm (8-10 in). Casemates were 8-10 in, deck varied from 1 to 2.5 in (64 to 25 mm).Turrets and the conning tower were given of course the thickest armour at 8 to 12 inches (face/side/roof; 305–203–63.5 mm).

Barbettes were given also 8-10 in and total weight amounted to 31.4% of the design displacement. It was a bit more than the next three battleship classes which were larger and roomier. The biggest drawback however was found in the propulsion: As limitations were drastic there was simply no room for larger engines. Therefore the same amount of power was not secured. Although it suggested to reduced the number of boilers by 1/3, turbine propulsion was also considered and eliminated for the same reason. The Bureau of Engineering only suggested more compact boiler rooms by eliminating the centerline bulkheads.

uss_michigan_circa_1918_fullsteam

The final result was four Curtis direct-current turbogenerators (200 kW (268 hp)) coupled with twelve coal-fired superheating Babcock & Wilcox water-tube boilers (Vertical triple expansion steam engines) which produced 16,500 hp (12,304 kW) for two screws to propel the ship at 16 knots maximum. Each ship, with its slow speed and squeezed off design costed the American taxpayer $7,000,000.

Active carrer

USS Michigan

The Michigan was the first Christened at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation's yard, by the daughter of Assistant Secretary of the Navy Truman Handy Newberry. The event was considered of such significance that many prominent individuals were present, the governor and lieutenant-governor of Michigan, the governor of New Jersey, the mayor of Detroit, and the secretary of the Interior Department, naval admirals and constructors. Trials of the Michigan took place at the navy's traditional testing grounds off Rockland, Maine, from 9 June 1909, but ran aground a sandbar and needed more time for trials completion because of damaged propellers. It nevertheless made USA the third country to operate a dreadnought after UK and Germany this summer, after its august sea trials at the Delaware Capes.

uss_michigan_at_brooklyn_navy_yard_oct1911-naval-review

It was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, and started a cruise down to the Caribbean Sea, and later training maneuvers off New England in the summer of 1910, following by a training cruise to Europe, sailing with her sister ship to Portland, UK, and Cherbourg, France. Then back to the Caribbean, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba on 10 January 1911. Two days after she was back to Norfolk, and trials of the over-the-horizon naval guns triggered the need for a spotter aircraft. The next two years were followed by East coast exercises.

By November 1912, back to the Gulf of Mexico, with many stops on the way, then Veracruz, Mexico and back to Hampton Roads in December, then patrols off the east coast until the first half of 1913. In the summer she was back because of the Mexican Civil War (Tampico, 15 July, cruising until January 1914). It was then back to New York City and transferred to Norfolk. The next month she was back to Guacanayabo Bay, Cuba, and the next month supported the United States occupation of Veracruz, landing a battalion of Marines. Then followed East coast patrols for the next three years. On 6, April 1917, with the war declaration, she was assigned to Battleship Force 2 (the reserve force) due to its slow speed. She spent time training naval recruits and escorting convoys.

On 15 January 1918, however Michigan was cruising off Cape Hatteras when she was caught into a sever gale that knocked over the forward cage mast, killing 6 and injuring another 13 men. The significance of this was not lost for future US BBs designs. Shen later trained gunners in the Chesapeake Bay, lost a screw while in escort and later in repairs until the armistice.

12in-45cal_mk5_connecticut_gun

In late 1918 and 1919 USS Michigan ferried back home troops with the Cruiser and Transport Force. She was back for an overhaul from May to the end of the summer 1919 in Philadelphia. In 1920 she was transferred to Honolulu, Hawaii, via the Panama canal. Back to Philadelphia she was decommissioned until 1921, then took part in a cruise to the Caribbean, and then was embroiled in a near-mutiny led by an officer in charge (Clark Daniel Stearns) which instituted a series of sailors' committees to ease tensions between the crew and officers, later on judged under Marxist influence and dismissed. In May, the did another trip to Europe and in 1922 it was decided under the Washington Naval Conference to scrap it together with her sister ship.

USS South Carolina

This ship was christened by Frederica Ansel, daughter of South Carolina's governor, and launched in July, 1st, 1908 at the William Cramp & Sons shipyard in Philadelphia. After a reception in NY by president Theodore Roosevelt, USS South Carolina spent time training naval militia, then was down to the Danish West Indies and Cuba (April 1910) and in November took a trip to Europe with the 2nd Battleship Division, stopping at Cherbourg and Portland.

After maintenance, she was back to conduct battle training off the coast of New England. After a stop to NY, she sailed for another European tour with stops in Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Kronstadt. On the way back she was saluted by German Kaiser Wilhelm II hosting the annual Kieler Woche (Kiel Week) sailing regatta.

photograph_of_the_battleship_uss_michigan_hudsonriver_1912

In summer she was back to Chesapeake Bay for exercises, then late 1911 was present at a naval review in New York City. In 1912 she sailed for Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, then back to Norfolk, then cruised off the east coast this summer, and was presented in a visit by the German battlecruiser SMS Moltke and light cruisers Bremen and Stettin in New York. Later in the year she was part of the Special Service Division for a tour of the Caribbean, including Veracruz.

Early 1913 she was guarding the just inaugurated Panama canal, being based at Colón. Manoeuvers at Guantanamo Bay followed, then another East coast cruise, trained US Naval Academy midshipmen and later took part in 1913 to the force sent to safeguard US interests in the Mexican civil war.

In January 1914 she was back for exercises off Culebra Island and landed a contingent of Marines ashore in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. She coaled at Key West and then sailed to Veracruz, to cover the occupation. For the next years she alternated training exercises off Cuba, maneuvers off Newport, and periodic maintenance in Philadelphia. When the US entered war she was part of patrols from April to August 1917, then joined pre-dreadnoughts of the Atlantic Fleet began escorting convoys to France. In September 17, she lost her starboard propeller and needed repairs in Philadelphia.

Then she performed gunnery training, until Germany signed the Armistice of 11 November 1918. After that she carried over 4,000 soldiers home. In 1920 she was sent to Hawaii, then sailed back stopping in Seattle, San Francisco, and San Diego, then Philadelphia through the canal again. She sailed to Europe in May 1921, with visits in Christiana, Norway, and Lisbon, Portugal. Decommissioned in late 1922 following the scrapping decision from the Washington Naval Conference, she was however only sold for scrap on 24 April 1924 to be dismantled. Her silver service is now on display at the South Carolina Governor's Mansion since 1947.

Specifications
-Displacement: 16 000t, 17 617t
-Dimensions: (138m x 24,5m x 7,5m)
-Propulsion: 12 chaudières, 2 hélices, 16500 cv. et 18,5 Noeuds max.
-Armour: Belt, barbettes 250 mm, turrets, conning tower 305 mm.
-Armement: 8 x 305 mm (8 in), 22 x 76 mm (), 2 TT 533 mm sub sides.
-Crew: 870 sailors and officers

Src: The South Carolina class on Wikipedia
illustration of the USS South Carolina
Rendition profile of the USS South Carolina

Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
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Imperial Japanese navy 1898 大日本帝國海軍 German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
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Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
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US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
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WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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