K.u.K Kriegsmarine - The Austro-Hungarian Navy

Origins of the Austro-Hungarian Navy

The Austro-Hungarian Navy can easily find its origin in the will of Emperor Franz Joseph 1, ascended the throne in 1848, to strengthen the Nordic influences in his navy, so far influenced by the Italian shipbuilding (in particular Trieste). Rear Admiral Von Dahlerup, a Danish formed the Columbia school, was appointed Chief of Staff of the Navy.

He reorganized the Navy for two and a half years, bequeathing including the designation "SMS" ships (Seiner Majestät Schiff), equivalent HMS Columbia, but resigned and was replaced by the brother of the Emperor, Archduke Ferdinand Max. One of the first ships of the new navy was the corvette Radetzky, built in Great Britain in 1856, and that became the model for Austrian arsenals then constitution.

The Austro-Hungarian Navy in 1860


Tegetthoff (centre) at the Battle of Lissa, painting by Anton Romako, 1880

In 1860 the Austro-Hungarian Navy was in fact largely built abroad: It consisted of a ship built in France, a copy of the Napoleon, mixed three-decker of 91 guns, SMS Kaiser, whih served as flagship. This was completed by 3 mixed frigates, 2 sailing frigate, 2 mixed corvettes, 2 sailing sloops, 4 brigs, 13 paddle steamers, 12 gunboats, 4 floating batteries and seven schooners.

The Austro-Hungarian Navy at sea
The Austro-Hungarian Navy at sea

Austro-Hungary ships list (1850-1870)

Austro-Hungary ships list (1880-1890)

Austria-Hungary ww1 Battleships

Monarch class coastal BS (1895)
Habsburg class
Herzherzog Karl class
Radetzky class (1908)
SMS Kaiser Karl IV (1898)
SMS Sankt Georg (1903)
Tegetthoff class (1911)

Austria-Hungary ww1 Cruisers

Zenta class (1897) Kaiser Franz Joseph I class (1889)
Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia
Admiral Spaun/Novara
Panther class (1885)
Zara class (1880)

Austria-Hungary ww1 Light ships

Austro-Hungarian Destroyers
Austro-Hungarian Submarines
Austro-Hungarian Torpedo Boats
Versuchsgleitboot

Innovations

It is also often forgotten that the inventor of the torpedo was an Austrian commander named Johann Luppis, who developed the idea of ​​an autonomous weapon to operate from the coast. He lacked the technical skills to develop this idea so he contacted Robert Whitehead, then engineer in Trieste.

Subsequently Ludwig Obry made a few improvements, such as the gyroscope. It is also the Austro-Hungarian Navy that first demonstrated the relevance of the ramming spur at the Battle of Lissa in 1866, as then many officers still saw this as a futile exhumation from antiquity. Later on, another engineer, Dagobert Müller von Thomamuehl devised in 1916 the world's first hovercraft (and fastest sea moving object ever built so far): the Versurchsgleitsboote, which can reach 32,6 knots at full speed and carry two torpedoes.

Versuchgleitsboote
The fantastic Versurchsgleitsboote, first practical military hovercraft, armed with torpedoes and much faster than the Italian MAS.

Context and budget within the Austro-Hungarian Navy

At the heart of this crossing of influences in the mediterranean that saw Italians, Austro-Hungarians, Russians, British, French and even German rival fleets, seeing an alliance between Italy and former enemies, the houses of Habsburg and Germany, in response to the alliance made since 1908 between France, England and Russia. This alliance however upset a section of the Austrian Staff led by its chief, General Von Hötzendorf, which predicted a new war with their old enemy.

Naval expenditure was relatively low and it had to do with often obsolete ships. This budget represented 15.7% of the empire military spendings in 1904. Part of the explanation can be found in the systematic opposition of Hungary in new spending to the Navy even though it was considered by the Austrians as important power status.

Austro-Hungarian-Fleet
Poster of the Austro-Hungarian Fleet

1904 and 1911 Naval plans

Despite of this, in 1904, the new Chief of Staff of the Navy, Admiral Spaun, presented a shipbuilding plan to counter the rise of the Italian navy. He was forced by the imperial defense minister to half its budget. He resigned and was replaced by Vice Admiral Von Montecuccoli, more conciliatory.

Therefore, no whatsoever program was launched before 1910. The 1911 plan however incorporated new ships, mostly dreadnoughts which formed the active core of the renewed Austro-Hungarian Navy during the Great War. The second part of the program was authorized under his successor in 1914, Admiral Haus, but unfortunately interrupted because of the outbreak of the conflict. The only ships launched afterwards were destroyers to replace losses.

The Austro-Hungarian Navy in Pola Harbour, circa 1890
The Austro-Hungarian Navy in Pola Harbour, circa 1890.

Austro-Hungarian Shipyards

The main warships projects emanated from the STT (Stabilimento Tecnico Trieste), founded in 1857, followed by the arsenal of Pola and Skoda-Wiktowize. They built but also modernized most of the units after 1860. Later was added t this panel CNT (Cantieri Navali Triestino) from Montfalcone. The few ships built in 1860-70 which not has been demolished served in various capacities in the fleet in 1914.

Thus, the Herzerzog Ferdinand Max, heroic veteran of the Battle of Lissa, long served as a coastguard, and despite being struck off the lists in 1898, it was still registered active in Pola. The Teggethoff (1878) replaced it eventually, named SMS Mars. The Kronprinzessin Erzerzogin Stefanie and Konprinz Herzerzog Rudolf (1884 and 1887) were used as school pontoons and opportunely resumed service as coastguard ironclads in 1914.


SMS Radetzky

State of the fleet

Overall because of too modest budgets and the lack of ambitious plans, the Austro-Hungarian fleet was aging and in 1914 consisted of virtually obsolete ships. The most recent dated back to 1903. The new ships initiated by the 1910 plan were the pre-dreadnoughts Radetzky of the class, Tegetthoff class, Admiral Spaun cruiser class, Tatra class destroyers and Torpedo Boats of the TB74 and 82 classes. War shipbuilding was limited to two light cruisers, four destroyers, nineteen destroyers, and nineteen U-Bootes.

Admiral Horty of the Austro-Hungarian Navy Admiral Miklós Horthy de Nagybányatook charge of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in 1917. He also became later a statesman, who served as Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary between World Wars I and II and until 1944.

Models detail of the Austro-Hungarian Navy

Here is a list of the ship that will be covered:
-Dreadnoughts: Tegetthoff class


-Pre-dreadnoughts: Monarch, Habsburg, Herzerzog Karl, Radetzky classes


-Armoured Cruisers: Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia, Kaiser Karl IV, Sankt Georg.


-Cruisers: Panther class, Tiger, Kaiser Franz Joseph class, Zenta class, Admiral Spaun class


-Destroyers classes Huszàr, Tàtra. 2nd class: Meteor, Blitz, Planet, Trabant, Satellit, Magnet.


-Torpedo Boats (High Seas): Kaiman class, TB74 class, TB81F class, TB98M class, Natter, Viper, Python class.


-Coastal TBs: TbI class, TbVII class, Bussard class, Sperber class, C XXVII class.


-Submarines classes U1, U3, U5, U10, U14, U20, U27, U47


-Miscellaneous: Coast Guard Ironclads Erzerzog Albrecht, Custoza, Kaiser max, Prinz Eugen, Mars, schoolships (ex.torpedo cruisers) Zara class minelayer Chamaeleon, depot ship Gäa, river monitors classes Maros, Körös, Temes (2), Gleitboot MBT class, MB164 MBT class, Versuchsgleitsboot class.


U10 class

Austro-Hungarian Submarines The Austrians built German submersible designs, either under license or pre-assembled and delivered for completion by rail. Austria-Hungary also received as reinforcements sixty German U-boats, operating under the Austrian flag but with a German crew. They obtained some successes. Eventually, the Austro-Hungarians also managed to capture and reuse the French submarine Curie, which was found entangled in the net blocking the harbor of Pola. It was renamed U14.
assembly of a SM U-31 submarine in the Ganz-Danubius company for the Austro-Hungarian Navy

assembly of U-31 submarine by the Ganz-Danubius company, 1916.Projects of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
Some original projects never have been achieved, like the use of the small scientific submarine Loligo stationed on Lake Garda, cargo submarine like the Deutschland (which exploit stunned the Austrian Navy General staff), and mini-subs used in the river Danube to disrupt enemy transports, conducting sabotage, destruction of bridges etc...


SMS Viribus Unitis (Postcard)

Late major shipbuilding projects included the four new Dreadnoughts of the Tegetthoff class, displacing 24 000 tons and armed with 10 x 350 mm cannons. Started in 1914, they had been scheduled for launch in 1915-1916 and for completion in 1917-1919; Three light cruisers of the Zenta class of improved Admiral Spaun, were put on hold in 1914-1915; four destroyers Ersatz Tatra, also put on keel in 1917; four oceanic submersibles like the U48, U50, four Type U52, eight Type U101, and thirty-four U107, identical to the UD type built in Germany.

Most were started but abandoned at different stages. The U50 was 90% complete when the war ended. Germany also sent 6 type LM by rail, but none managed to reach Pola before the end of the war.

Cannons of the SMS Tegetthoff of the Austro-Hungarian Navy Cannons of the SMS Tegetthoff

KuK Kriegsmarine 1914, order of battle:

15 Battleships:
-12 Pre-dreadnoughts: Monarch (3-coastal), Habsburg (3), Herzerzog Karl (3), Radetzky (3)
-3 Dreadnoughts: Tegetthoff (3). Fourth, Szent Istvan, achieved 1915
Cruisers
-3 Armoured Cruisers: Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia, Kaiser Karl IV, Sankt Georg.
-10 Cruisers: Panther (2), Tiger, Kaiser Franz Joseph (2), Zenta (3), Admiral Spaun (2, +2 fall august 1914 and early 1915).
27 Destroyers:
Classes Huszàr (14), Tàtra (6). Second classe: Meteor, Blitz (2), Planet, Trabant, Satellit, Magnet.
79 TBs
-High seas: Classe Kaiman (24), TB74 (8), Natter, Viper, Kaiman, Python (4).
-Coastal: TbI (6), TbVII (6). Bussard (20), Sperber (2), 2nd class type C XXVII (6).
7 Submersibles:
U1 (2), U3 (2), U5 (3).

Miscellaneous ships of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
-Coastal Battery Guardships : Erzerzog Albrecht, Custoza, Kaiser max, Prinz Eugen, Mars.
-Torpedo Cruiser Zara class (4 used as schoolships).
-Chamaeleon Minelayer (1913)
-Depot ship Gäa (1890)
-River monitors class Maros (2), Körös (2), Temes (2).

Best Cruisers: The Spaun/Novara class



The light cruiser Admiral Spaun was laid down in Pola in May 1908 in the light of the new naval plan, which specified in addition to the Tegetthoff class battleships, 8 scout cruisers. Eight years had passed since the completion of the last Zenta. Also, the lessons of the previous failures had been retained. In addition, the naval commission charged to study the order of a ship of 3500 tons insisted on the essential role of this cruiser. Her main quality put forward was speed.

Therefore steam turbines were used logically, and the hull was to allow the necessary number of boilers to be installed, in order to obtain the required power and a speed superior to the cruisers of the time, sacrificing both protection and armament to reach it. The empire has no previous experience of turbines, so they were ordered directly from UK, a batch of six Parsons turbines. Two were coupled with 16 Yarrow water tube boilers, mater to four propellers. The long hull guaranteed excellent hydrodynamics. But the Admiral Spaun, launched in 1909 and completed in 1910 was considered a prototype. The beginning of her career was shaky as she was often immobilized for adjustments and structural problems and propulsion fixes. Her propellers configuration was not retained on the following Novara class.

In 1911, the first of three other units, SMS Saida, was started at CNT Montfalcone. Next, SMS Helgoland and Novara were launched in 1912 and 1913 respectively at Danubius yards, Fiume. Only the Saida was accepted in service before the war (in August 1st, 1914). Helgoland was commissioned on 29 August and Novara in January 1915. They were reinforced, used German AEG turbines or local Mems-Pfenniger turbines, and received two additional 100 mm guns. In 1916, they received a 66 mm AA gun, and three twin banks of 21-in (533 mm) TTs, one of which was at the stern. All were very active, participating in many operations where their speed was an advantage. SMS Admiral Spaun was awarded in 1918 to Great Britain and broken up in Italy. Saida and Helgoland were awarded to the Italians, and were appreciated enough they served until 1937 under the name of Venezia and Brindisi. SMS Novara became the French Thionville, written off in 1932.

Austro-Hungarian Marines in Beijing, circa 1910

Wartime Shipbuilding:

-Szent Istvan (Tegetthof class) completed in 1915. Four more planned, never started.
-2 light cruisers Saida class.
-4 improved destroyers Tatra class, 19 sea going destroyers: TB82 (16) TB98 (3) classes.
-20 Submersibles: U7 (German), U10 (5, Germans UB), U20 (4), U27 (8), U43 (2).
-21 Misc ships: River monitor Enns class (2), Sava class (2); Fogas class (2), Barsch class (ex-Wels, 4 ships), Stör (2), C (2);
Experimental hovercraft Versuchsgleitboot (1915), armored TB Mb107 (3), Gleitboot No. 1 MTB, Assault Amphibious Mb164 (2).


Dreadnought Battleship Szent Istvan. This recent ship was famously sunk (and the footage of its sinking is now an icon) by an Italian MAS 15 MBT during the night of 9 June 1918.

Italian MAS boat, fearest opponent of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
Italian MAS boat. These became the nightmare of the Austro-Hungarians, to the point of blocking any attempt of a raid in full force in the Adriatic.

Tonnage in 1914 (until 1918)
15 BS (+1), 13 (+2) cruisers, 27 (+4) destroyers, 79 (+20) TBs, 7 (+20) submersibles, 17 (+21) Misc.

Naval Aviation: K.u.K. Seefliegerkorps

When military aviation was just beginning in this conflict, The Austro-Hungarian Navy already had its own aviation corps: the K.u.K. Seefliegerkorps. The K.u.K. Seeflugwesen (Imperial and Royal Naval Air Corps) was funded in August 1916 and later rechristened. Naval officers who received their initial pilot training at the airfields of Wiener Neustadt in Lower Austria became the first enlisted pilots. First assigned for tours aboard the Tegetthoff-class battleships but also at the Berat, Kavaja, Tirana, Scutari and Igalo airfield in Albania and southern Dalmatia, and later Podgorica in Montenegro.


Albatros D.III in service with the K.u.K. Seefliegerkorps

These units were called "Fliks". Feltre (captured on 12 November 1917 after Caporetto) was used as well as Arsie and Fonzaso, the latter being main station for the Austrian naval aviators in that area. Naval Aviation used modified German planes and also local variants or domestic planes. These models were the Fokker A.III and E.III and later D.VII, Hansa-Brandenburg B.I and D.I, Aviatik D.I, Albatros D.III, Phönix D.I, or Lohner L.

More on the Austro-Hungarian Navy in action

When the head of the General Staff Admiral Haus, obtained the vote for a new, more ambitious naval plan, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo. Dispersed in 1914 between the Mediterranean and the German coast, the fleet gathered in Pola to escort German naval forces including the Goeben and the Breslau under the orders of cons-Admiral Souchon. The General Staff dismissed the idea of ​​strikes raids against allied forces in the Dardanelles to help the Turks, so as not to deplete the coast in case of a landing on its own soil. War broke out with Italy in May 23, 1915 and did not helped matters.

However, this episode led the entire fleet to conduct a single massive coastal bombardment. During the rest of the conflict, the navy remained in the safe harbor of Pola, to guard any intrusion in the Adriatic where she had a ruling hand. The only way out was to the credit of the new Chief of Staff Admiral Horthy after it has been found its submarine bases blocked (including German UB-UC types) because of the minefields of the Otranto area. Horty decided in 1918 a raid in full force, committing the brand new Szent Istvan. However during the night, the latter was sunk by torpedoes from an Italian MAS, and the whole operation was canceled.

The only effective raids were those of the U-Bootes, destroyers and torpedo boats, and also naval aviation. The latter was developed in the 1910s, taking advantage of the good weather of the Adriatic. 570 aircraft were used during the conflict, including bombers, fighters and reconnaissance aircraft, leading to frequent air patrols and mobilizing enemy air forces. River monitors were also frequently called on the Danube against Serbia.

It should also be noted that like Germany, Austria-Hungary knew pro-communist riots in the fleet later in the war. One of the difficulties was to give orders to the crew with all the "minorities" of the empire: Croats, Slovenes, Italians, Hungarians, Austrians, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ruthenians, and Romanians. In 1917, October 5, the crew of the TB11 was captured and the officers deserted in Italy. The TB80 knew nearly the same fate. Two Italian-origin airmen did the same in 1918.

Worse, in January 1918 a general strike in the arsenal of Pola degenerated into a "red" insurrection within anchored ships in the Bay of Cattaro: The Saint Georg, Gäa, Crown Prince Rudolf, and some destroyers nearly raised the red flag. Their officers were able however to maintain loyalty. The 800 mutineers were landed under the threat of coastal batteries, and the whole affair ended by a court-martial and the execution of the insurrection leaders.

With the armistice signed on November, 3, 1918, the fleet was dispersed withing allies through war damages but the majority were sent to the wreckers. Only a handful of river patrol vessels survived until 1932, under the Austrian flag, authorized through the Treaty of St Germain-en-Laye. Three monitors will also be allocated to Hungary in 1927. Among them, the Stör served during World War II to stop the advance of the Soviet troops during the siege of Vienna in 1945 and survived until 1966 as a civilian ship.

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Naval History

⚑ 1870 Fleets
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine
Hellenic Navy 1870 Πολεμικό Ναυτικό
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
Prins H. der Neth. Turret ship (1866)
Buffel class turret rams (1868)
Skorpioen class turret rams (1868)
Heiligerlee class Monitors (1868)
Bloedhond class Monitors (1869)
Adder class Monitors (1870)
A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
A.Paulowna Frigate (1867)
Djambi class corvettes (1860)
Amstel class Gunboats (1860)

Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
Screw 3-deckers (1850-58)
Screw 2-deckers (1852-59)
Screw Frigates (1849-59)
Screw Corvettes (1846-59)
Screw Fl. Batteries (1855)
Paddle Frigates
Paddle Corvettes
screw sloops
screw gunboats
Sailing ships of the line
Sailing frigates
Sailing corvettes
Sailing bricks

Gloire class Bd. Ironclads (1859)
Couronne Bd. Ironclad (1861)
Magenta class Bd. Ironclads (1861)
Palestro class Flt. Batteries (1862)
Arrogante class Flt. Batteries (1864)
Provence class Bd. Ironclads (1864) Embuscade class Flt. Batteries (1865)
Taureau arm. ram (1865)
Belliqueuse Bd. Ironclad (1865)
Alma Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1867)
Ocean class CT Battery ship (1868)
French converted sailing frigates (1860)
Cosmao class cruisers (1861)
Talisman cruisers (1862)
Resolue cruisers (1863)
Venus class cruisers (1864)
Decres cruiser (1866)
Desaix cruiser (1866)
Limier class cruisers (1867)
Linois cruiser (1867)
Chateaurenault cruiser (1868)
Infernet class Cruisers (1869)
Bourayne class Cruisers (1869)
Cruiser Hirondelle (1869)

Curieux class sloops (1860)
Adonis class sloops (1863)
Guichen class sloops (1865)
Sloop Renard (1866)
Bruix class sloops (1867)
Pique class gunboats (1862)
Hache class gunboats (1862)
Arbalete class gunboats (1866)
Etendard class gunboats (1868)
Revolver class gunboats (1869)

Marinha do Brasil 1870 Marinha do Brasil
Barrozo class (1864)
Brasil (1864)
Tamandare (1865)
Lima Barros (1865)
Rio de Janeiro (1865)
Silvado (1866)
Mariz E Barros class (1866)
Carbal class (1866)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868)
Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868)
Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869)
Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870)
Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870)
Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874)
Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885)
Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)

Ertrogul Frigate (1863)
Selimieh (1865)
Rehberi Tewkik (1875)
Mehmet Selim (1876)
Sloops & despatch vessels

Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865)
CT. Bat Independencia (1865)
Turret ship Huascar (1865)
Frigate Apurimac (1855)
Corvette America (1865)
Corvette Union (1865)

Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870 Imperial Japanese navy 1870 大日本帝國海軍 Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine Russian mperial Navy 1870 Российский флот Swedish Navy 1870 Svenska marinen
Norwegian Navy 1870 Søværnet
⚑ 1898 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1898 Armada de Argentina
Parana class Gunboats (1873)
La Plata class Coast Battleships (1875)
Pilcomayo class Gunboats (1875)
Ferre class Gunboats (1880)

Austro-Hungarian Navy 1898 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1898 中华帝国海军
Danish Navy 1898 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1898 Πολεμικό Ναυτικό
Haitian Navy 1914Marine Haitienne
Koninklije Marine 1898 Koninklije Marine
Konigin der Netherland (1874)
Draak, monitor (1877)
Matador, monitor (1878)
R. Claeszen, monitor (1891)
Evertsen class CDS (1894)
Atjeh class cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Sumatra (1890)
Cruiser K.W. Der. Neth (1892)
Banda class Gunboats (1872)
Pontania class Gunboats (1873)
Gunboat Aruba (1873)
Hydra Gunboat class (1873)
Batavia class Gunboats (1877)
Wodan Gunboat class (1877)
Ceram class Gunboats (1887)
Combok class Gunboats (1891)
Borneo Gunboat (1892)
Nias class Gunboats (1895)
Koetei class Gunboats (1898)
Dutch sloops (1864-85)

Marine Française 1898 Marine Nationale
Friedland CT Battery ship (1873)
Richelieu CT Battery ship (1873)
Colbert class CT Battery ships (1875)
Redoutable CT Battery ship (1876)
Courbet class CT Battery ships (1879)
Amiral Duperre barbette ship (1879)
Terrible class barbette ships (1883)
Amiral Baudin class barbette ships (1883)
Barbette ship Hoche (1886)
Marceau class barbette ships (1888)
Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Acheron class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
Vauban class barbette ships (1882)
Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
Prot. Cruiser Tage (1886)
Prot. Cruiser Amiral Cécille (1888)
Prot. Cruiser Davout (1889)
Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
Troude class Cruisers (1888)
Alger class Cruisers (1891)
Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 大日本帝國海軍 German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Российский флот
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska Marinen Norwegian Navy 1898 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

Spanish Navy 1898 Armada 1898
Ironclad Pelayo (1887)

Infanta Maria Teresa class (1890)
Emperador Carlos V (1895)
Cristobal Colon (1897)
Princesa de Asturias (1896)
Aragon class (1879)
Velasco class (1881)
Isla de Luzon (1886)
Alfonso XII class (1887)
Reina Regentes class (1887)

Destructor class (1886)
Temerario class (1891)
TGunboat Filipinas (1892)
De Molina class (1896)
Furor class (1896)
Audaz class (1897)
Spanish TBs (1878-87)
Fernando class gunboats (1875)
Concha class gunboats (1883)

US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
USS Maine (1889)
USS Texas (1892)
Indiana class (1893)
USS Iowa (1896)

Amphitrite class (1876)
USS Puritan (1882)
USS Monterey (1891)

Atlanta class (1884)
USS Chicago (1885)
USS Charleston (1888)
USS Baltimore (1888)
USS Philadelphia (1889)
USS San Francisco (1889)
USS Newark (1890)
USS New York (1891)
USS Olympia (1892)
Cincinatti class (1892)
Montgomery class (1893)
Columbia class (1893)
USS Brooklyn (1895)

USS Vesuvius (1888)
USS Katahdin (1893)
USN Torpedo Boats (1886-1901)
GB USS Dolphin (1884)
Yorktown class GB (1888)
GB USS Petrel (1888)
GB USS Bancroft (1892)
Machias class GB (1891)
GB USS Nashville (1895)
Wilmington class GB (1895)
Annapolis class GB (1896)
Wheeling class GB (1897)
Small gunboats (1886-95)
St Louis class AMC (1894)
Harvard class AMC (1888)
USN Armoured Merchant Cruisers
USN Armed Yachts

WW1

☉ Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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