SMS Blücher (1908)

Armored Cruiser

The first German Battlecruiser ?

According to Conway's all the world fighting ships 1906-1921 and many other sources, SMS Blücher is rated as an "armoured cruiser". However, by the composition of her main artillery and inspiration before construction she was more like a transitional, hybrid ship, an armoured cruiser with battlecruiser features.

She was however really the last German Armoured cruiser, following the famous Scharnhorst class. Before she was ordered, German intel about the Invincible gave wrong estimates on which the engineers drawn their first blueprints, which could not later being revised.

So the end result was no match in size, armament and speed to true battlecruisers.

SMS Blücher
SMS Blücher was the first and last German monocaliber armoured cruiser

A short presentation

The SMS Blücher was named after a great Prussian general of the Napoleonic era and co-winner at Waterloo. She was quickly indeed sometimes wrongly classified as a "battle cruiser" because of her monocaliber artillery.

However contrary to the previous Scharnhorst class she had a rather light protection, and a main artillery distributed like the Nassau and Helgoland classes of battleships. She also had a relatively low speed, and therefore was considered at the same time an advanced armoured cruiser, but a prototype for a serie which never happened.

Instead the Von Der Tann was built in 1908-1911, this time with correct intel and the right specs.

Fighting at the Battle of Dogger Bank, SMS Blücher was fatally battered by a whole line of battlecruisers and sank after an heroic resistance allowing other Hipper's fleet to escape. Despite her alledged light protection she proved extremely hard to sink.

Design of the Blücher

Previously all armoured cruisers since the Fürst Bismarck were Große Kreuzer (large cruisers) and took part in the reconnaissance force. The Scharnhorst-class ships however were a exception, designed to be used in a battleline alongside regular battleships.

Emphasis was on protection. On 26 May 1906, the Reichstag authorized the construction of the Blücher as well as the first Nassau class battleships batch. These ships had a lot in common, starting with their artillery. By then the official designation masked her true nature.

Provisionally known as "E", she was first drawn to match contemporary British armoured cruisers. When the intel derliver a report of the building on the new Invincible class, it was expected ships equipped with six or eight 9.2 in (23 cm) guns.

The appropriate response then seemed to be twelve 21 cm (8.3 in) guns in six twin turrets, the rate of fire and massed volleys compensating for the lower caliber and range. The previous Scharnhorst-class had eight guns, in two twin turrets fore and aft and in barbettes.

This time all the guns were in turrets, with six in chase or retreat, and eight either side. However, just one week after orders were given to the Kaiserliche Werft at Kiel, the German naval attache obtained the definitive specifications of what seemed to be a new class of ship.

The design could not be completely revized however and construction proceeded, however a modified version of the blueprints would be use as a basis for the Von der Tann.

Unfortunatey for the Germans, when the Blücher emerged as completed in October 1909, the British were already starting the construction of their second generation battlecruisers, and she was obsolete. Despite of this and due to her 28,532,000 Goldmarks price tag, she was deployed with the battlecruiser squadron.


SMS Blücher in 1912

Armour of the Blücher

Compared to the Scharnhost, the new cruiser was 3000 tons heavier, 20m longer, and 3m wider. She still had a arm bow, a long forecastle on which was mounted her fore artillery turret, four twin turrets on both sides with recesses for forward and aft fire, and rear turret.

Secondary armament was mounted in barbettes. The hull was constructued with both transverse and longitudinal steel frames, 13 watertight compartments and a double bottom running 2/3 of the hull's lenght. She was not subjeted to pitch, but had a severe roll and with the rudder at 90% she heeled over up to 10°, loosing as much as 50%+ of her speed.

The hull armour was made of Krupp cemented armor, with variable thickness between the most vital areas and the others. This was not an all-or-nothing scheme.

The armored deck thickness was 5–7 cm (2.0–2.8 in), armored belt 18 cm (7.1 in, central portion and down to 8 cm (3.1 in) elsewhere don to zero on both ends, with an additional 3 cm (1.2 in) of teak nehind and a 3.5 cm (1.4 in) torpedo bulkhead on the central section only between both side turrets.

The CT (Conning Tower) was made of 25 cm (9.8 in) thick walls and 8 cm thick roof, while the the rear one had 14 cm (5.5 in) walls and 3 cm roof. The central citadel was 16 cm (6.3 in) thick and main turrets were had 18 cm sloped sides and 8cm roof while The 15 cm turret casemates were 14 cm thick.

Armament

SMS Blücher received twelve 21 cm (8.27 in) SK L/45 quick-firing guns, six twin turrets placed forre and aft and in wings either side of the superstructure.

Shells weighed 108 kg (238 lb) each and 1,020 (85 rounds per gun) were carried. The guns could be depressed to −5°, elevated to 30° with a top range of 19,100 m (20,900 yd) and rate of fire was 4–5 rpm.

The secondary battery counted eight 15 cm (5.91 in) quick-firing guns inside C/06 casemates among which four centered amidships on either side.

Range was 13,500 m (14,800 yd) with 1320 rounds total in store (165 shells per gun) 5–7 rpm at a muzzle velocity of 835 m (2,740 ft) per second.

Tertiary artillery consisted of sixteen 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK L/45 quick-firing guns in protected casemates (bridge, bow, and stern) and pivot mounts in the rear superstructure, acting also as AA guns, 3,200 rounds in store (200 shells per gun).

Rate of fire was 15 rpm, 10 kg (22 lb) high explosive shells and maximum range 10,700 m (11,700 yd). Finally, for close and personal relationships Blücher had four 45 cm (18 in) torpedo tubes, placed in the bow, stern, and broadside below the waterline, with 11 torpedoes in store, each carrying a 110 kg (240 lb) warhead and had two speed settings 2,000 m (2,200 yd)at 32 knots or 1,500 m (1,600 yd) at 36 knots.


SMS Blücher line drawing

Propulsion of the Blücher

With its larger size, the Blücher needed a more consequent raw power than the previous Scharnhost class. It consisted of three 4-cylinder vertical triple expansion engines fed 18 × marine-type boilers and actong on three shafts, with a total of 31,562 ihp (23,536 kW).

On 1909 trials, this went as far 37,799 indicated horsepower (28,187 kW) with forced heat. This was enough to get the top speed to a mere 25.4 knots (47.0 km/h; 29.2 mph), below what battlecruisers were capable of. Her range was at best 6,600 nmi (12,200 km; 7,600 mi) at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) and 3,350 nmi (6,200 km; 3,860 mi) at force cruiser speed or 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph).

Of the three screws one was larger than the others, for cruise at lower speeds. The Blücher carried 900 t (890 long tons) in peace time, but thanks to voids in the hull this could be expanded to 2,510 t (2,470 long tons). For electrical power six turbo-generators that provided 1,000 kilowatts (225 volts).


Blücher circa 1913

Career of the Blücher

After being commissioned into the fleet on 1 October 1909, Blücher served as a training ship for naval gunners starting from 1911 and in 1914 was transferred to the I Scouting Group with Von der Tann, Moltke, and Seydlitz.

The Baltic Sea
Her first operation was an inconclusive sweep into the Baltic against Russian forces. Later on September she sailed with the IV Squadron (7 dreadnoughts, five cruisers, 24 destroyers) trying to draw out a the Russian fleet and search for a decisive victory. But the Russians refused to take the bait and withdrew to the Gulf of Finland.

Raid on Yarmouth, 2 November
On 2 November 1914, the I scouting group left the Jade Bight and arrived off Great Yarmouth at daybreak, shelling the port, and SMS Stralsund laying a minefield. On the way back in a heavy fog over the Heligoland bight, SMS Yorck sank by error in a German minefield and sank.

Raid on Scarborough, 15 December
Under order of Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl another raid was was decided on the English coast for luring a portion of the Grand Fleet out. At 03:20, 15 December 1914, SMS Blücher, Moltke, Von der Tann, Derfflinger, Seydlitz, and light cruisers Kolberg, Strassburg, Stralsund, Graudenz, winged by two squadrons of TBs left the Jade, sailed north past Heligoland, reached the Horns Reef lighthouse, and turned towards towards Scarborough.

Twelve hours after, the High Seas Fleet departed in turn (14 dreadnoughts, eight pre-dreadnoughts, two armored cruisers, seven light cruisers, 54 TBs) sailed as a backup and trap force. However since August 1914 and the capture by the Russians of the SMS Magdeburg's code books with German signals, plus intercepted messages, warned the Royal Navy. Therefore vice Admiral Beatty's four battlecruisers and 3rd Cruiser Squadron plus 1st Light Cruiser Squadron and 2nd Battle Squadron's six dreadnoughts as backup sortied to try to ambush Hipper's battlecruisers.


Blücher underway in 15 December

However during the night 15/16 December because of an encounter with British destroyers, Admiral Ingenohl decided to retreat but Hipper was unaware ofthis and proceeded, splitting into two groups, once including Blücher, bound to shell Hartlepool, and the other Scarborough and Whitby. Hartlepool replied with its coastal artillery, Seydlitz was hit three times and Blücher received six hits, suffering minimal damage but with nine killed and three wounded.

They regrouped and retreated later, but only to be cut off by Beatty's battlecruisers and at 12:25, one of the cruisers (2nd Light Cruiser Sqn) spotted the Stralsund and signaled it. However because of a misinterpreted signal the German light cruisers were allowed to escape and alerted Hipper whichturned northeast of the British forces and escaped.

Battle of the Dogger Bank, 23 January 1915
The Blücher would met her fate at the Battle of Dogger Bank, on January 1915: on 23 January, Hipper, knowing British ships were doing a recce mission around the Dogger Bank area sailed out with Seydlitz followed by Moltke, Derfflinger, and Blücher supported by light cruisers and 19 torpedo boats.

However British cryptographers of Room 40 were soon able to locate the German operational area so the British massed an impressive force to try to catch them: Beatty's 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, Rear Admiral Gordon Moore's 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron, Commodore William Goodenough's 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron and Commodore Reginald Tyrwhitt's Harwich Force. At 08:14, Kolberg spotted the light Britsh cruiser Aurora (Harwich Force) and both duelled.

Stralsund then joined the fray but the smoke betrayed Hippers position and british reinforcements rushed towards the position. Eventually both forces engaged and Hipper spotted the Blücher "... at the rear of the German line, which had opened fire on a light cruiser and several destroyers coming up from astern".


Blücher listing, under heavy fire

Hipper eventually turned south at 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph), Blücher's maximum speed while the chasing British ships were abover 27 knots. Then HMS Lion opened fire on Blücher's tail at 20,000 yards (18,000 m) and Princess Royal, Tiger later joined in.

The last cruiser of the battle line was now under heavy fire. German ships however returned fire on HMS Lion, while Blücher scored a hit on Lion's forward turret, the concussion effect being enough to disable the crew. Soon after HMS New Zealand also opened fire on Blücher and with the decreasing range, Hipper ordoned all his ships to open fire.

However it was too late for the Blücher which after two hours had exchanged volleys and was now badly hit, listing to port. At 11:48, Indomitable was ordered by David Beatty to finish off the battered Blücher, which was now the subject of an inferno as coal in the emptied bunkers took fire.

However Blücher was about to be left alone as Beatty received reports of U-boats in the nearby area, and manoeuvered to sail back. He however ordered his battlecruisers to open fire on the "tail" of the German line, therefore all British ships targeted the already batterred Blücher which would received about 70 large caliber hits.

This did not prevented her to repluse several attacks, before being topedoed twice by HMS Aurora. Now all her guns has been silenced, and the British cruiser reloaded and launched another seven more torpedoes at point blank range.

The german armoured cruiser eventually capsized and sank for good at 13:13. British destroyers steamed towards her in an attempt to rescue survivors, but were rebuffed by an attack of rogue Zeppelin L3, by error. In the end, only 6 officers and 275 enlisted men suvived.


Blücher capsizing

The sacrifice of the Blücher (despite an attempted last-ditch support by Hipper) allowed the battlecruisers Moltke, Seydlitz, and Derfflinger to escape back home. This loss angered the Kaiser that decided against other actions for the time being and sacked Rear Admiral Eckermann and admiral Ingenohl.

Links/Sources

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Bl%C3%BCcher
https://www.fr.naval-encyclopedia.com/1ere-guerre-mondiale/Kaiserliche-Marine.php#crois
https://www.deutsche-schutzgebiete.de/kaiserliche-marine.htm
https://www.sms-navy.com/
Specs Conway's all the world fighting ships 1906-1921.

Wittelsbach specifications

Dimensions162 x 24.5 x 8.70 m
Displacement15 600t, 17 250t FL
Crew1026
Propulsion3 turbines, 18 Schultz-Thornycroft boilers, 34 000 hp
Speed24.25 Noeuds ( km/h; mph)
Range5,000 nautical miles () @10 knots
Armament12 x 210 mm (6x2), 8 x 150 mm in barbettes, 16 x 88 mm Flak, 4 x 450 mm TT (sub)
ArmorBarbettes 180 mm, Battery 140 mm, Belt 180 mm



Illustration of the Blücher, by the author (1/400)

Naval History

⚙ 1870 Fleets
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Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
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Chinese Imperial Navy 1870 中华帝国海军
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Hellenic Navy 1870 Πολεμικό Ναυτικό
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Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
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Imperial Japanese navy 1898 大日本帝國海軍
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Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
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US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
armada 1898 1898 Armada

WW1

Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
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ww1 British cruisers
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WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
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W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries
Neutral countries
Argentinian navy Argentina

Brazilian Navy Brazil
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Chilean Navy 1914 Chile

Chinese navy 1914 China
Cuban Navy 1914 Cuba
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece
Haitian Navy 1914 Haiti

Mexican Navy Mexico

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Peruvian Navy 1914 Peru
Portuguese navy 1914 Portuguese
Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spanish Armada Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Thai Empire Navy 1914 Thailand
South American Navies 1914 Americas
Other third-rate navies of the world 3rd rank navies

Central Empires


WW2

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

allied ww2 Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

allied ww2Neutral/small Fleets

small fleet ww2

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn Chinese Navy

Ning Hai class Cruisers (1931)
Chinese Gunboats

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy
No Hellenic-built ship to cover yet.
Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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