Dutch Navy WW1
A shadow of its past glory
The origin of the Dutch Navy
A rousing start
The Koninklijke Marine was Created at the end of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648), taking independence from the House of Habsburg. She reached a peak during the Dutch Republic era (1581–1795), having at some point the world's largest navy, which was pitted against England, France, and Spain's own mighty fleets. During this golden age of great galleons and Indiamans, the Dutch Republic naval forces were spread among five separate admiralties (three in Holland, one in Friesland and Zeeland) operating local fleets, up to command organization, and revenues. The famous VOC (Dutch East India Company or Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) chartered in 1602 had its own fleets, armies, organization and command plus an international network of naval bases and colonies. This was the first modern global company, a state withing the state. The VOC was eventually closed when Napoleon's armies conquered the Netherlands, after 200 years.
Old Glories and remembrance: Willem Van de Velde victory over the British at Scheveningen on August, 10, 1657, part of the First Anglo-Dutch War.
The XIXth Century was bleaker for the Dutch as a declined, which started from after 1713 and cluminated in the 1780. At this point, the Dutch Marine was no longer a match for the French and British navy, despite an ambitious revival in 1780, the fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780-1784) was a catastrophe, the Dutch allowing free passage throughout the East Indies whole until 1789 what remained of the home squadrons were sent to the Dutch East India Company. Reforms with the academy and command structure occurred with the Batavian Revolution (1795) and a central organisation was funded in The Hague.
The fall of the Empire
However warships stayed in dry-docks, a few conveying William V to Great Britain and the others sailing to East Asia. In 1796 a squadron surrendered at Saldanha Bay (1796) while the lost Battle of Camperdown in 1797 followed by the surrender of the fleet near the Vlieter in 1799 erased what was left of the Batavian navy, now part of Imperial France. After regaining independence in December 1813, the Dutch navy revived but later in the 19th century suffered from constant shortage of manpower. In addition, the bankruptcy of the East India Company, against the bulk of the home fleet shifted to East Asia in 1850, with the "Government Navy".
The XIXth Century
The navy began to modernize the fleet, introducing a series of monitors, two large turret ram ship (then ordered abroad). From 1867 however, the Rijkswerf in Amsterdam was the first shipyard modernized capable of delivering major warships. In the 1890s series of protected cruisers and coastal defense ships was introduced, with what became the Royal Netherlands Navy in 1905. The first submarines were introduced in 1910, and there were plans to order several dreadnought battleships in 1914: https://imgur.com/t/battlecruiser/QfrKp4M
- Vickers 558 - Length: 152,4m. Displacement: 18600 ?. Speed: 21 kts. Armament: 8x 343mm, 2x1 533mm TT. Belt: 230, Citadel: 100-150, Turrets: 76, Barbettes: 250, CT: 250
- Vickers 592 - Length: 137,2m. Displacement: 14000 ?. Speed: 21 kts. Armament: 6x 356mm, 2x1 533mm TT. Belt: 230, Citadel: 150, Turrets: 150, Barbettes: 230, CT: 230: Denied due to being too expensive according to The British Battleship 1906-1946 by N. Friedman.
- Panterschip 1913 - Displacement: 17000 std. Speed: 20+ kts. Armament: 8x 305mm L50 4x or 6x submerged TT. Belt: 300, Deck: 25 or 75, Turrets: 300, Barbettes: 300, CT: 350, Bulkheads: 300 (source: Marineblad jrg 27 1912/1913 volgno 4.)
- Germaniawerft 743 - Length: 174m. Displacement: 21300 std. Speed: 22 kts. Armament: 8x 343mm 4x submerged TT 533mm. Belt: 250, Deck: 25+25, Turrets: 300, Barbettes: 300, CT: 300, Bulkheads: 37
- Germaniawerft 753 - Length: 174m. Displacement: 22000 std. Speed: 22,5 - 23 kts. Armament: 8x 343mm, 3x submerged TT 533mm. Belt: 250, Deck: 25+25, Turrets: 300, Barbettes: 250, CT: 250, Bulkheads: 40
- Armstrong 793 - Design 793 26 May 1914: 25,600 tons (560ft/597ft oa x 89ft x 28ft, forecastle depth 43ft amidships/50ft to forecastle), armed with eight 14in, sixteen 6in, eight 3in (anti-torpedo guns), four 3in AA, seven 21in TTs
- Vickers Design 793A, same displacement, longer (580ft/617ft x 89ft x 28ft)
The Dutch Navy in the Great War
In 1914, the Dutch fleet was in the same position as other Scandinavian fleets, having only one coast defense squadron to defend its shores and several obsolescent cruisers and torpedo boats. She was totally outclassed by the Hochseeflotte at home, while the bulk of her naval forces resided in the "pearl of the empire", Indonesia, facing since 1905 the rise of Japan's empire, confident after Tsushima. Achin's war had, by its duration (1873-1904), considerably drained treasure, and naval budgets could only be modest. The metropolitan fleet could only waging a delaying action against the German navy, since the real peril came obviously from the land. On the Dutch East Indian Squadron, based at Java, the fleet could at least resist better to the Japanese until the concurrence of one or all the other allies, like nearby Great Britain. That was all theoretical as the Netherlands remained neutral. In addition by 1914 the British own Indian fleet had been withdrawn for the benefit of the home waters. The French navy of Indochina could only deploy minor units, while the Chinese fleet was inoperative, divided between local warlords, of dubious allegiance and value.
Therefore in 1908 at last, a vast rearmament plan was decided: Four coastal battleships of 7000 tons were ordered as well as submersibles and destroyers. The main focus was however on mine-laying capabilities in order to immobilize the adversary or channel it towards coastal artillery or strong torpedo forces.
A royal commission was appointed to study the question of defense of the East Indies, and recommended in 1913 the starting of 5 dreadnought battleships in the 20 000 tons range, as well as four for home waters as well as fifty destroyers, dozens of torpedo boats and large submersibles, as well as new minelayers. It was also planned to reinforce Batavia, transform it into a fully fledged fortified naval base with coal reserves and three forts own heavy artillery. With political opposition to this proposal, a crisis broke, and the plan was not voted on until August 1914. The outbreak of the war made it obsolete.
So here is the fleet strength on this date:
7 Coastal Battleships:
De Zeven Provincien (1909), Kortenaer (1894-Evertsen class survivor), and five smaller Konigin Regentes (1900-06).
Classe Holland (1896-98).
Classe Fret (1910-13).
35 Topedo boats:
16 classe G (1904-14), 3 classe Draak (1906), 2 classe Ophir (1901), 5 classe Hydra (1900), Makjan, 4 classe Ardjoeno (1888). Seconde class XXI (1890) and 3 classe K (1905). 8 more in construction.
O1 (1905), 4 class O2, and K1 (1913). Two more on order.
3 armoured gunboats Brinio class (1912), 2 minelayers Hydra class (1911), gunboat Borneo (1892), 2 Nias (1897), 3 Koetei (1898), 8 Hydra (1873-76), 16 Wodan (1877-79).
7 Coastal defence ships
Situation at home
In 1914, the Dutch fleet was in the same position as Scandinavian countries, having only one coast defense squadron to defend its shores, totally outclassed by the Hochseeflotte, the expansionist Reich being the most feared at the time. west, while the bulk of his naval forces resided in the "pearl of the empire", Indonesia, and had to face the rise of Japan's empire, considerably strengthened since 1905 in morale, confidence and capabilities. The Achin war had, by its duration (1873-1904), singularly impoverished the treasury, and naval budgets were curtailed.
Koning der Nederlanden 1874
The metropolitan navy could not do much against the German navy, but the real military peril came in the occurrence of the land. On the Dutch Eastside, the Japanese fleet outclassed the squadron of Java, but at least it had to resist until the concurrence of one or all the allies.
The Dutch Empire's last colonies
However, the prevalent budgetary constraints policy had its limits. Against Japanese appetites, the Russian Pacific Fleet no longer resisted after 1905, while the British Indian Fleet had been withdrawn for the benefit of the Metropolis. The French navy of Indochina could only deploy minor units, while the Chinese fleet was inoperative, crippled after 1894, and stranded because of its division between local warlord and the regime's corruption, rarely able to fight. In 1908, a vast rearmament plan was decided: Four coastal 7000 tons battleships and are submersible plus destroyers. The main focus was on minefields, to immobilize the adversary or force an enemy to pass through areas beaten by coastal artillery, mined and easily defended by few ships. The classic "Salamine trap".
HNLMS Jacob van Heemskerck (1906)
A royal commission was appointed to study the question of defense of the East Indies, and it recommended in 1913 the start of construction of five 20,000 tons dreadnoughts for this sector, but also four for the metropolis, assisted by about fifty destroyers. There were also dozens of torpedo boats and large submersibles, as well as new minelayers. It was also planned to reinforce Batavia, transformed into a naval base with the addition of coal reserves and defended by three forts. Despite the political opposition that provoked a crisis, the plan was not voted on until August 1914. The outbreak of the war made it obsolete.
Here are Dutch naval force at the eve of WWI:
7 Coastal Battleships:
The De Zeven Provincien (1909), the Kortenaer (1894), a survivor of the Evertsen class, and the 5 class Konigin Regentes (1900-06).
4 Holland class (1896-98).
Freja Class (1910-13).
16 Class G (1904-14), 3 Class Draak (1906), 2 Class Ophir (1901), 5 Class Hydra (1900), the Makjan, and 4 Class Ardjoeno (1888). Second class: The XXI (1890) and 3 class K (1905). 8 others planned under construction.
O1 (1905), O2 class, and K1 (1913). Two others planned.
3 armored gunboats class Brinio (1912), 2 Hydra class minesweepers (1911), the Borneo gunboat (1892), 2 class Nias (1897), 3 class Koetei (1898), 8 multipurpose ships class Hydra (1873 -76), and 16 class Wodan (1877-79).
HNLMS Hertog at Hendrik at Makassar strait (1906)
The Batavian Navy during the First World War:
The neutrality shown by Holland in 1914 was one of the most difficult to hold: Neighbor of the Second Reich, whose armies would have made a mouthful of her, granting herself valuable opportunities on the North Sea, it should also spare the Japanese, neutral too, but who could then very well switch to the camp of the triple alliance. Its imposing maritime trade, with Germany as well as with Great Britain, was also a powerful obstacle to any engagement.
With the blockade imposed by the English and the severe control of the merchant traffic, economic activity was significantly weakened. In practice, the reception of German cargo ships was almost impossible, a consortium of Batavian merchants committing themselves to it and Great Britain keeping the right to "blacklist" the offending importers, particularly by weighing on coal imports allocated to companies.
HNLMS De Zeven Provincien departing for the East Indies (1910)
However, blockades were always possible, thanks in particular to the intermediaries represented by the Scandinavian countries. Thus Germany received millions of tons of Norwegian iron passing through Rotterdam. A large illegal food trade also developed illegally, with the black market inflating prices and freeing appetites from many adventurers... The Royal Navy also did not hesitate to pursue German blockade enforcers in Dutch waters; Those who passed through the Batavian ports were not in principle worried.
Plans HNLMS Koningin Regentes
HNLMS Koningin Regentes (1898)
In 1917, with the development of submarine warfare, the Dutch were not spared and lost, despite their safe conduct, 230,000 tons of commercial ships, worth 147 million pounds sterling. New ships constructions were launched: In 1916, two cruisers of the Java class
, completed in 1925-26, 6 torpedo boats class Z, 2 submersibles class O6, the KII, 2 class KIII, 3 class KV, 3 class KVIII (these last completed after the war, in 1919-23), 2 trawlers and 5 tugs converted as minelayers, 2 Van Meerlant class minelayers. In addition, two submersibles, a German type UC and an English type H were recovered after sinking in home waters and were reused by the Navy, under the names of M1 and O8.
HNLMS Cruiser Java, launched 1920.
The Dutch Navy in detail
1919: Lichtendahl Superdreadnought / Battlecruiser - 1919 essay "De economische, politieke en strategische ligging van Indisch-Nederland", lieutenant 1st class N.F. Lichtendahl. Recommendations for a 30 000 ton Super-Dreadnought & cruiser fleet led by a 27,000 tonnes battlecruiser, 26kts. Src
WW1 Dutch submarines
Not many were present in home waters to change the course of history. Coastal in nature, they were held in harbour defense for the duration of the war. All in all, seven submarines, and in addition a single one (K1) was deployed in the Dutch east indies (see later). In addition, the Dutch Netherlands Navy had a single German Type UC I submarine in service, called M1
after being recommissioned, and a single British H-class submarine, called O 8
. The first was the ex UC-8, stranded near the Frisian island of Terschelling on 6 November 1915 and captured, after her crew opened the valves to sink her. She was recovered and repaired, interned, and then acquired from Germany, entering service in January 1917. Her fate is not known with certainty, she was either scrapped after the war or kept as a training boat.
was the ex H-6, stranded also, but on Schiermonnikog on 18 January 1916. She was refloated and interned, because the country remained staunchly neutral during the conflict. By agreement, when was acquired by the government and pressed into commission in May 1917. She had a long service time, for whole the interwar, not surprising due to the quality of these boats (see WW1 British Submarines
). In May 1940 she was captured in Den Helder by the Germans. They turned her as the UD-1, used as a training boat, and later was repatriated in Germany. She was scuttled in Kiel in May 1945.
"It's not easy to stay neutral", Dutch humoristic postcard of WWI.
The First Dutch submarine, built at De Schelde Yard as a private venture in Vlissingen, after the Dutch Navy purchased plans from Electric Boat Co. He first name was Luctor de Energo
, and she was -as anticipated by the yard- purchased by the Navy and renamed Hrms O 1. She was launched in July 1905 but commissioned in December 1906, completion and trials leading to many fixes. Basically a very early commercial Holland boat, she was typical of the type, fast and agile after diving, slow and short range on surface. Initially fitted with a petrol motor, it was replaced in 1914 by a MAN diesel engine. It saw service during the war as a coastal/training boat and was stricken in 1920. She displaced 105/124 tonnes and was capable to reach 8 knots on surface, 6 underwater, and carried a single 250 mm TT (9.8 in).
O 2 class:
O2-O5 were basically the main submarine class in service when the Netherlands went at war in August 1915. They were all built at De Schelde, based on plans prepared by the British engineer Marley F Hay, and Whitehead & Co in Fiume (a famous torpedo manufacturer since the 1870s). Laid down in 1909-1912 they were completed in 1911-1914, but already obsolescent as the war started. Despite of this, they were modernized after WW1 and maintained in service as training/coastal submersibles until stricken in 1931-35.
Dimensions: 31.1 x 3.1 x 2.9 m (102ft x 10ft 2in x 9ft 6in)
Propulsion: 1 shaft MAN diesel 6-cyl, 1 electric motor 350/200 shp, 11/8.6 knots
Range: 500 nm/10 kts, 26 nm/8.6 kts underwater
Armament: Two 450 mm TTs (17.7 in)
O 6 class:
Wartime submarines (launched 1916), comprising O6 and O7. They were born from different yards (O7 from Fijenoord) and sufficiently different for some authors to have them separated.
O 6 was indeed of the Holland type, O 7 of the Hay-denny type. The O 6 was ordered on 8 May 1913, laid down in May 1914 in Flushing, De Schelde, launched on 10 June 1915 or 15 July 1916, comm. on 5 December 1916. During the war she remained based in Den Helder. In early june 1920 she made a trip to Norway, visiting Odda, Bergen, Gudvangen and back. In June 1923 she was used by Professor F.A. Vening Meinesz for gravity measurements in the North Sea. Without no other notable events she was decommissioned in November 1936. O 7 was ordered on 8 May 1913, laid down on 12 May 1914 the O 7 in Rotterdam, Maatschappij Fijenoord, launched on 22 July 1916 and commissioned on 23 December 1916. Nothing notable happened during WW1 as she was posted as O 7. On 18 May 1927 she collided with the Swedish steamer Scania off the coast of Texel, but survived and was repaired. From 1935 she was used only as a training vessel, until December 1936 decommissioned and sold for scrapping, but still extant in 1940, when the Germans invaded the Netherlands. Captured, she was of no use and stayed idle, until sinking on 2 May 1944 in Den Helder because of water leaking and scrapped after the war.
Specifications (O 7 in brackets)
Displacement: 189/229 (716/206 t)
Dimensions: 37.7 x 3.8 x 3 m (34.2 x 3.7 x 2.9 m)
Propulsion: 1 shaft MAN diesel +EM 375/185 shp (350), 12/8.5 kts
Armament: 3x 450 mm (17.7 in) TTs bow and stern, 1 MG