Chinese Nanyang Fleet

One of the forgotten gunboat-size Chinese cruisers

In 1880 the concept of cruiser was rather new. Not long ago, mixed Frigates were still the norm. This was a time for transition in which Vickers-Armstrong ruled the trade and wrote the book, providing cheap 'cruisers' to the world. Countries still with a young shipbuilding industry such as Italy or Japan purchased protected cruisers, and China was no stranger to this as well. Given limited resources at that time, everything was better than the motley collection of sometimes hunded-year old sampans and junks armed with bronze or wooden cannons and firelances.

Nothing could oppose aggressive Western trade backed by the fleet of the British and French especially in 1840-57. Concessions were obtained by force, and in 1860 Russia annexation north of the Amur, USA's 'punitive expedition' against Korea in 1870, Britain's war to gain Burma the next year, all contributed to raise the Imperial court's concerns about their fleet.

The change started when the Foochow and Kiangnan shipyards, reorganized and helped by Westerners started to deliver the first Chinese armed steamers. In 1869 already, the Foochow fleet was created. From 1875, the Empress authorized a global naval budget for all maritime provinces. Minister Li Hung Chang later started to reorganize the disparate fleet and started to create a modern navy in 1880, purchasing ships abroad. The most impressive was the order of two ironclad to German shipyards. The fleet was now slowly reorganized by British Officers.

Context: The Sino-French war

In 1882 however France had views on Indochina, at the time considered as China's backyard. The process started by the attack on Tourane in 1858 by Rigault de Genouilly's combined French-Spanish forces, which deposed the hostile (to catholic missionaries especially) Nguyễn dynasty. A new compaign started which ended in 1862 with the Treaty of Saigon granting new concessions to the French, and additional provinces fell under French control until 1867, soon called the French colony of Cochinchina while in 1863 the Cambodian king Norodom requested French protectorate. Further extensions camed with the Tonkin campaign in 1883–86 generally called also the "Sino-French war". Until 1894, Indochina was formed by the addition of Annam, Tonkin and the Kingdom of Cambodia and Laos.

But in 1881, already Henri Rivière's expedition in Tonkin and Battle of Paper Bridge in 1883 accelerated the degradation of relations between France and China, since in 1882 the Vietnamese Government seeked help from Liu Yongfu, leader of the elite black flags troops, backed by China. Rivière was beaten but the Black Flags were beaten in turn in two more battles whereas a protectorate over the Tonkin took place. Negociations to avoid war and attempts to the German government to delay the delivery of two ironclads for the Beiyang Fleet did not succeed.

The 1880 Chinese cruiser Chaoyong, British-built for the Beiyang fleet
The 1880 Chinese cruiser Chaoyong, British-built for the Beiyang fleet.

Order of the Pao Min at Shanghai

In this context, the Pao Min was ordered for the southern fleet (Nanyang), the most likely to clash with the French, in October 1883. Also called Baomin (保民), this vessel was single of her class, and a "cruiser", receiving at least some protection. She was not however a "protected cruiser". The latter received and armoured deck over the engines and magzaines, and gun shields. The Pao Min was launche din January 1884 and completed in October, so relatively quickly.

The Nanyang fleet would comprise the screw frigates Hai-an and Yu-yuan (delivered 1872), the unprotected cruisers K'ai Chi and Kai Che (delivered 1884), Nan Shui, Nan Shuin, and Nan-jui of the same type (1884), the cruisers Nan Ch'en and Nan Chin (1884), and the Paomin. The next year, the unprotected cruisers Ching Ch'ing and King Ch'ing were ordered and the Hian T'ai and Huan Tai in 1887. The Pao Min was ordered locally to the Kiangnan DYd in late 1883.

Seeing various sources, Pao Min is described sometimes as a "cruiser", therefore receiving some limited protection, while others, among which the respected Conway's books, classed this ship and an unprotected cruiser. Any case, this vessel was small, displacing 1477 to 1480 tons standard for dimensions of 64,9m (oa) by 11m wide and 4,27 m in draught. Her steam reciprocating engine was rated for 1900 KW and this power was backed by schooner rigged sailing. Zdditional sails were customary of the time. Her armament was mostly German, two 150/35 mm Krupp guns (6 in) and six 120/35 mm (5 in) plus four QF 47/20 mm guns.

Design of the Pao Min

Pao Min photo
After crawling the internet this is the only photo i found of the Pao Min. It is contradictory to the usual description of a two-masted ship but the hull, unique funnel and superstuctures are coherent. According to battleship-scruiser.uk, the photo relates to the pao Min in 1889, so after the Sino-French war. A close examination of the bridge superstructure shows what its seems interesting woodwork.

The locally-built Paomin was laid down in Kiangnan shipyards. This was part of the Kiangnan Arsenal complex and General Bureau of Machine Manufacture of Jiangnan. Now the yard is called Jiangnan and is still the main southern Chinese naval yard today. The arsenal became the largest in Asia, procuring most of Chinese 1870-90s weaponry, but also the yard produced the first Chinese steam boat (the Huiji) in 1868 and the first domestically produced steel in 1891.

Baomin cruiser HD

This ship was a Schooner-rigged, steel-hulled cruiser. Information is scarce to say the least about this obscure cruiser, but since no data could be found about her armour protection, if any, the designation given by Conway, page 399, must be closest to the truth. What was an unprotected cruiser ? A 'cruiser' in general was supposed to be a gun-armed vessel, faster and more heavily armed than a gunboat, at least in the 1880s. The fact that she was not given any protection at the time some received limited armour over the magazines and engines, plus gun shields, make it more vulnerable but also cheaper. There is just one known photo of the vessel, which makes this post less bare.


The two profiles allegedly attributed to the Pao Min/Baomin. The first is from navalhistory.flixco.info and shows a ship with two large sponsons guns, but the right three masts also in the photos but it's unlikely the Pao Min. The second one if more faithful to Conway's description.

As shown by the photo, and the reconstitution made and displayed in navypedia (no profile in Conway's), the Pao Min was a conventional three-masted vessel. The steel hull had a straight bow which extended with a ram underwater. The stern was raked and looked like schooner sterns of the time, probably well decorated and housing the officers quarter. The hull, painted black, was not flush deck as there was a small break in the forward deck, then walls pierced by three ports either side, and the walls ended at the rear on the quarterdeck to left the aft Krupp main gun the best traverse opening. What was unusual was the forward gun was placed in a closed trap in the bow not on the main forward deck above. Therefore, despite its absence of shieding, it was protected by the hull itself.

This design feature was rare at the time for main guns (but not unusual for lighter guns in traversing barbettes). The hull, 64.9m pp and 69.4m overall was low on the water, therefore, this opening was probably very wet in anything but calm seas. The 4.27 m draught was important nonetheless so her use on rivers was limited to the Yangtze. Appearance as built apparently changed in the 1890s. The photo attributed to the Paomin shows three masts and a raked stern. In the 1890s and according to Conway's short description, she was two-masted and there is no mention of a raked stern. It is likely that Pao Min lost her mizzen mast. A simple pole is shown on the 1890s appearance where the mizzen should have been.
Armament Sources are diverging a bit about the precise caliber of the various guns carried by the cruiser. Conway's is less precise with 5.9 in guns (150 mm) and 5-in guns (127 mm), two 3-pdr, while Navypedia is clearer by giving the calibers in millimetres: 149 mm or since its a German nomenclature 14.9 cm/32 RK L/35 C/80. This meant these main Krupp guns were 32 caliber long, rifled, and rear-loaded. The two guns, called 15 cm Schnelladekanone Länge 35 were brand new in 1883 as the arsenal just proposed them for export. These became very popular guns, rivalling Vickers products worlwide. In addition to China, which purchased many of these for their ships, fortesses and land troops, the gun was also used by Austria-Hungary, Denmark, Japan, The Netherlands, The Ottoman Empire, Romania and Spain.

Widespread among Chinese cruisers, these guns had separate loading cased charge and projectile, firing a 45.6 kg (101 lb) projectile of a 149.1 mm (5.87 in) 35 caliber. The 5.8 tonnes loading system was a horizontal sliding breech block. The gun elevation was -7° to +20° and rate of fire about 4-5 rpm for a well trained crew. Muzzle velocity was 650 m/s (2,100 ft/s) and maximum firing range 10 km (6.2 mi) at +19°. One was placed as said above in the bow port. The gun was on rails and tracted forward to fire and the port was closed when not in use. The opening allowed some limited traverse, about 60-70° only. Certainly less than in a standard deck position. As said also, it could only perform well in calm weather. Splashed would have obscured it completely.

Hotchkiss 3 pdr
A Royal Navy Hotchkiss QF 3-pdr (47 mm)

The secondary armament comprised six Krupp (presumably) 12cm/32 RK L/35 C/80 guns, all placed in side ports on the main deck. Traverse was also limited. The first pair was just abreast the foremast, the second behindd the funnel and the third between the main and mizzen masts. In addition, the ship were equipped to deal with early torpedo boats and other close threats with two French Hotchkiss '3-pdr' also 47mm/40 Hotchkiss guns. The latter were unprotected but its is difficult to locate them on the ship, most probably in a high position, possibly either side of the main bridge. Note: Another reference give the cruiser a top speed of 16 knots, two 200-lb and six 70-lb guns.

Propulsion
Information is scarce about it. There was a steam reciprocating engine, driving one shaft and single propeller, rated for 1900 ihp. Navypedia is diverging completely, stating there were two HC engines instead, fed by 6 cylindrical boilers. It is perhaps related to an hypothetic refit, or an error from one source. Both agrees about the ratings, 1,900 ihp. Whatever the case, top speed was noted as nine knots also. This could seems laughable for a cruiser especially today, but that that time the ship was considered as a glorified gunboat. Conway's itself classifies the Pao Min not along the cruisers, but the gunboats and sloops, which is telling. Sources agrees the cruiser carried 300-360 tons of coal. Range was estimated 3360 nautical miles at 10 knots. Complement was 200 men.

Active service of the Pao Min: 1884-1903

The Chinese cruiser was completed in October 1884 too late to be thrown in to the furnace of the Sino-French war. She was part of the Nanyang Fleet (南洋水師), one of the four modernised provincial Chinese navies in the late Qing Dynasty (1870s). This feet was crippled during the Sino-French War. Later the remainder escaped intact in the Sino-Japanese War, but the Pao Min did not survived enough to see the fleet formally abolished in 1909. When the Pao Min entered service, the star of the fleet and only really ship feared by the French was the semi-experimental tiny ironclad called Jinou, made at Foochow.

Admiral Li Chengmou (李成謀), a veteran of the Fujian fleet and traditional Yangtze water forces commanded the fleet. He decided to stay safely in Shanghai and Nanking from August 1884. They were closely watched at a distance from July 1884 by the French ironclad Triomphante, which maintained de facto a "blocus". Pao Min was still fitting-out in Shanghai during the war. French Admiral Amédée Courbet asked to lead an attack, which was denied by PM Jules Ferry. The ironclad therefore departed with the cruiser d'Estaing for the Min River, concentrating the squadron for an attack against the Fujian Fleet and Foochow Navy Yard. The "blocus" was maintained by the cruiser Perceval which replaced both ships in station.

Courbet attack on the Fujian Fleet on 23 August 1884 (Battle of Fuzhou) was the starting point of the war. Therefore Admiral Li Chengmou decided to split the fleet to protected both Shanghai and the arsenal and Nankin. Staying at Shnaghai were the Longxiang, Feiting, Cedian and Huwei. The cruisers Nanrui and Nanchen, and other ships including the Pao Min sailed out for Nanking. French cruiser Perceval did not opposed them and departed in turn. In February 1885, trying to break the French blockade of Formosa the Chinese squadron suffered defeat in the Battle of Shipu while Kaiji, Nanrui, Nanchen, Chaowu, Yuankai were trapped and blockaded in Zhenhai Bay until the end of the war. Pao Min was delivered as the war ended.

Operational records are not known directly, she is only mentioned a few times and her known fater is a hulk in 1903. Afterwards she could have survived many more years in this state, one source telling 1920 as her scrapping date. Entering service shortly after the war ended, she somewhat compensated in the declining Nanyang fleet for the losses of the Yuyuan and Chengqing soon joined by the Foochow built composite cruisers Jingqing and Huantai in 1886-87.

Interwar years (before 1894) did not saw much as actions or records, and the Baomin, now a third-rank cruiser, was assigned to the Chinese Nanyang gunboat fleet and acted the same way. The Beiyang Fleet was rebuilt in the end of the 1890s with five brand new steel cruisers made in British & German shipyards. These were second rank protected cruisers but nevertheless, this placed China on the level of the Chilean Navy, certainly at thet time the elite naval power of South America.

Nanyang fleet Frigate Dengyingzhou in construction
Nanyang fleet's Frigate Dengyingzhou in construction

In 1894 during the first Sino-Japanese war, the Pao Min is absent from the Battle of Pungdo in July as only the Chinese cruiser Tsi-yuan and gunboat Kwang-yi are mentioned, plus the transport Kow-shing. During the Battle of the Yalu River (1894), the Paomin was not involved as this affair concerned the Beiyang fleet. Record after the battle are not known either and the ship is supposed to have been hulked in 1910, but probably existed as a hul in WW1. All in all, the Pao Min is just anecdotical in the Chinese naval history, missing two wars, but she was important nevertheless as one of the first domestically-built Chinese cruisers, in what is now probably the largest PLAN shipyard and arsenal.

Specifications

Specifications*

Dimensions64.92 m x 10.97 m x 4.27 m draft (213 x 36 x 14 ft).
Displacement1,480 tonnes standard -approx. 1,590 tonnes Fully Loaded
Crew200
Propulsion1 shaft reciprocating, 2 boilers, 1900 ihp.
SpeedTop speed 9 knots, 3000? nm range, about 300 tons coal.
Armament2 x 249 mm (5.9 in), 6 x 120 mm (5 in), 2 x 47 mm QF (3 pdr).
ArmorNone.

Src/Read More

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanyang_Fleet
https://www.worldnavalships.com/chinese_navy.htm
http://oceania.pbworks.com/w/page/8450927/Chinese%20Cruisers
http://www.navypedia.org/ships/china/ch_cr_pao_min.htm
https://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/5204442
https://www.quora.com/Why-did-China-have-no-fleet-after-the-Beiyang-fleet-s-destruction
http://docshare03.docshare.tips/files/26364/263644851.pdf
Google Books the Sino Japanese wars 1894-95
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Naval_ships_of_Qing_China
https://fr.scribd.com/document/263644851/Nanyang-Fleet
Arlington, L. C., Through the Dragon's Eyes (London, 1931)
Duboc, E., Trente cinq mois de campagne en Chine, au Tonkin (Paris, 1899)
Loir, M., L'escadre de l'amiral Courbet (Paris, 1886)
Lung Chang [龍章], Yueh-nan yu Chung-fa chan-cheng [越南與中法戰爭, Vietnam and the Sino-French War] (Taipei, 1993)
Rawlinson, J., China's Struggle for Naval Development, 1839–1895 (Harvard, 1967)
Wright, R., The Chinese Steam Navy, 1862–1945 (London, 2001)
https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Battle_of_Zhenhai
https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Battle_of_Shipu
https://wikivisually.com/wiki/Sino-French_War

Naval History

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WW1

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HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries

✠ Central Empires

⚑ Neutral Countries

Europe
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Portuguese navy 1914 Portugal

Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spain Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden


WW2

✪ Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

✙ Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB
⚑ Neutral

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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