Hai Tien class protected cruisers (1898)

Chinese Empire/Republic - Hai Tien, Hai Chi (1898)

The largest Chinese cruisers in 1900

The Hai Tien class were two 4,300 tons armoured cruisers built in Great Britain, at the Armstrong yard, and on a popular model pioneered by the Esmeralda. Steel-hulled, two funnels, two masts with fighting tops, they were ordered in 1895, right after the Sino-Japanese war, ordered and laid down in 1896 and completed in 1899. Their 8 in guns (152 mm) were mounted in turrets fore and aft with electrical mounts, and the 4.7 in guns (102 mm) placed on the broadside amidships. They also featured a complete protected deck in Harvey steel and had a relatively long career. Hai Tien was sunk in 1904 but Hai Chi would be in service in 1937 when the second Sino-Japanese war started. Hai Chi and Hai Tien were the largest ships in the Chinese navy until after World War II.

Hai Chi
Colorized photo of the Hai chi in 1911 (Library of Congress) by Postales Navales


Hai Chi 1935

Context: 1896 Chinese naval plan

With the end of the first Sino-Japanese War in 1895, the Manchu Qing dynasty was left broken. Her proud, costly foreign built fleet of Beiyang had been annihilated in the hands of the Japanese, and her armies decimated on land. The celestial empire's weakness has been exposed to all, and foreign powers resumed their habits of carving up China with humiliating treaties under the threat of big guns. Among the treaties signed with the Qing government was in 1896 the Li–Lobanov with the Russian Empire, giving out Northeast China. In 1898 this was Convention for Hong Kong with the United Kingdom, a leasing for 99 years. Same lease with the German Empire for Jiaozhou and in 1899, Guangzhouwan to France. But prior to this, the Qing government made a new, ambitious naval plan to be completed by May 1896, all with western-built, modern cruisers.

For this naval plan, a commission was created by the Marquis of Suyi, Li Hongzhang, appointed by the dowager queen. A veteran diplomat of the Qing, he was the honorary guest at the coronation of Nicholas II Romanov, and paraphed and signed the treaty with Aleksey Lobanov-Rostovsky. He was also a guest in Germany, France, Belgium and the UK, arriving in August 1896. In each country, he left competitive requirements for a variety of cruisers and smaller vessels. He later travelled to the United States to try to revoke the Chinese Exclusion Act. Budgetary constraints however tied his hands down, and in the end, the battleship was dropped of the equation, and he could only ask for five cruisers (three from Vulcan, two from Armstrong Whitworth) and four destroyers (Schichau).


Hai Tien as completed in UK, making her trip to China with a British crew.

The two British-built cruisers were ordered from Armstrong Whitworth. They were named Hai Chi ('Sea Boundary') and Hai Tien ('Heavenly Sea'), ordered in July on plans derived from existing ships and ready in a short notice. Hai Chi was laid down on 11 November 1896. She would be launched on 24 January 1899, commissioned 10 May 1899, so the class was often named after her sister ship, Hai Tien, laid down in February 1897 but launched 25 November 1897 and commissioned earlier, on 28 March 1899.

Hai Chi class design

ARA Buenos Aires
ARA Buenos Aires, the true basis for the design, derived from the Chilean Esmeralda. Colorized photo by Postales Navales

The design for these protected cruisers was closely modelled after the Argentinean ARA Buenos Aires, designed by Philip Watts, the yard's star naval architect. Armstrong Whitworth had the blueprints in store, and the ship was just one year old. The final cruiser had a displacement of 4,300 tons, up to 4,515 tons fully loaded.

Armour:
The ships' armour was made from Harvey steel, the latest and world's best hardening process at that time. The entire protective deck, with sloped sites, when it joined the belt, was 127 mm (5 in) thick on the slopes but down to 37 mm (1 in) mm for the central horizontal section. The Guns were protected by shields 114-millimetre (4.5 in) thick, and their ammunition hoists were 102 mm (4.0 in) thick. The conning tower had walls 152 mm (6.0 in) in thickness. The lightest 3-pdr Hotchkiss mounted in the fighting tops, had also a shield. The bow formed a spur ram and was also reinforced considerably.

Armament:
The armament scheme was directly copied fro the previous Watt's Buenos Aires: The main battery comprised two single 8 inches guns (exactly 203.2-millimetre) of 45 calibre. They were mounted fore and aft, protected by enveloping and placed on the centreline. However contrary to the previous Argentinian cruiser, there was a coherent, uniform secondary battery of ten secondary guns QF 4.7 inch Mk V naval guns, instead of a mix of 6-inch and 4.7-inch guns. As usual, a tertiary armament was install to deal with torpedo boats, and which comprised sixteen QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss. Latter were placed in part behind superstructure's walls, broadside, and in the fighting tops (two for the lower, one for upper one). Also as most cruisers of the time, the Hai Chi class was carried five 450 mm (18 in) torpedo tubes. They were all fixed above water, one at the bow, four more broadside, one aft, defending any direction at close range.

Propulsion:
Propulsion was rather classic, but powerful, as the two propellers shafts were driven by four Hawthorn Leslie vertical triple expansion engines. Steam came from twelve cylindrical boilers, with a mix of double-ended and single-ended models, delivering the total output of 17,000 bhp (12,700 kW). Top speed was up to 24.15 knots (27.79 mph; 44.73 km/h) at forced draught. The Hai Tien class carried 1,000 tons of coal, the range established to 8,000 nmi (15,000 km) at 10 knots. Hai Tien's sea trials showed she could reach normally 22.6 knots (26.0 mph; 41.9 km/h) at natural draught, which was maintained in pursuit.

HaiQi
Hai Chi in 1910


Hai Tien in 1899, as completed


Conway's profile of the Hai Tien class. Apart the electrical equipment modernization in 1911, Hai Chi appareance changed little, and she receive no meaningful modernization, so that in 1937, she was completely obsolete, when facing the IJN.

Specifications

Specifications*

Dimensions105.5 m x 11.90 m x 4.3 m draft.
Displacement4,300 tonnes standard -approx. 4,600 tonnes Fully Loaded
Crew350
Propulsion2 shaft VTE, 12 cyl. boilers, 17,000 ihp.
SpeedTop speed 24.5 knots, 8000 nm range, about 1000 tons coal.
Armament2 x 6-in (152 mm), 10 x 5.5 in (140 mm), 16 x 3-in (76 mm), 5 x 18in TTs (457mm)
Armor40 mm deck with 76 mm belt, 120 mm amo hoists, 130 mm shields, 152 mm CT.

Src/Read More

Robert Gardiner (Hrsg.): Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905
Arlington, L. C., Through the Dragon's Eyes (London, 1931)
Wright, R. The Chinese Steam Navy, 1862–1945 (London, 2001)
Wright, R. "The Chinese Flagship Hai Chi and the Revolution of 1911".
On china-defense.blogspot.com
On chroniclingamerica.loc.gov
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Hai_Chi_class_cruiser
http://www.tynebuiltships.co.uk/H-Ships/haitien1899.html
https://web.archive.org/web/20110109161838/http://www.beiyang.org/bybq/haiyin.htm
http://www.navypedia.org/ships/china/ch_cr_hai_chi.htm
https://ww2db.com/ship_spec.php?ship_id=813
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beiyang_Fleet
https://www.worldnavalships.com/chinese_navy.htm
http://oceania.pbworks.com/w/page/8450927/Chinese%20Cruisers
https://www.quora.com/Why-did-China-have-no-fleet-after-the-Beiyang-fleet-s-destruction
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Naval_ships_of_Qing_China
https://www.nytimes.com/1911/09/13/archives/many-visit-chinese-cruiser-bluejackets-to-get-shore-leave-this-week.html


Known Model kit: http://nntmodell.com Oceanmoon 1/700

The Hai Chi in service

Hai Chi was built in 1897-99 by Armstrong Whitworth in Newcastle upon Tyne and sailed for China on 22 May 1899 with a British contract crew. She arrived three weeks later. In August 1899, both cruisers were in China in the the reconstituted Beiyang Fleet, anchored at Dàgū (Taku, famous forts which would led to a battle during the Boxer war). Hai Chi was assigned as flagship, carrying the mark of Commodore Sa Zhenbing, CiC of the Beiyang fleet, the largest and most modern, northern Chinese fleet. The second was the Nanyang fleet, based in Shanghai.

Hai Tien 1899
Photos of the Hai Tien in 1899 as completed (Imperial War Museum), on her way to China. typically she had a black hull and canvas bag color and white superstructures. In 1900 or later, 1902-1903, this was changed to overall light grey, as shown by wreck photos of the Hai Tien, unless only her hull was painted white; Most good quality photos of the Hai Chi shows a grey painted vessel.


Hai Chi class profile view (Conways)

The Boxer Rebellion

Capture of the Forts at Taku

Hai Chi was present during the boxer rebellion, when the Beiyang Fleet sailed for the Taku forts on 31 May 1900. They were to face the alliance fleet, composed of 23 warships from nations implicated in the expedition, with guns facing each others. There was a state of high tension until on 16 June 1900 a delegation was sent by the eight-Nation Alliance fleet. As it was refused, the nations of Russia, UK, Japan, Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy prepared to bombard the forts and land Marine troops.

The Battle of the Taku Forts: On June 15, electric mines has been deployed in the Peiho River and commanders of the alliance met the following day to decide that Control of the Taku forts was key to control of northern China. Vice-Admiral Hildebrandt (Russian Navy) sent the ultimatum to the commander of the forts, sending it back by telegraph to the Governor of Zhili Province. Terms were to "occupy provisionally, by consent or by force" the Forts. The deadline was 2 a.m. on June 17. USN Rear Admiral Louis Kempff stated he has no authority to undertake hostilities but agreed to send the gunboat USS Monocacy to take on civilians near the fort out of harm. Only ten ships crossed over the river banks and entered the Hai River 200 yds wide and 900 men were assembled while the Chinese gunners, troops and sailors of gunboats had 2,000 men. In addition of mines torpedo tubes were installed at the forts.

The first shots were Chinese, at about 00:45 on June 17. Korietz was heavily damage and Monocacy took a hit and was moved away. HMS Whiting, SMS Iltis, Lion and Giliak were also all hit, and severely damaged. Four modern German-built destroyers alongside the dock at Taku were swiftly captured by men from HMS Whiting and HMS Fame. The artillery duel went on until dawn until the ground assault took place on the Northwest Fort, with 200 Russians and Austrians followed by 380 British and Italians and next 300 Japanese. Fortunately a lucky hit blasted the fort's powder magazine, opening a breech and causing a massive confusion, helping the the Japanese storming the fort, while the British and Italians assaulted North Fort. Next the fleet bombarded the forts on the south side of the river. Another powder magazine blew up in one, and they were abandoned, captured later with almost no opposition. All this was over at 6:30 a.m.

Hai Chi is evacuated
The remainder of the Beiyang fleet was evacuated southwards. Hai Chi was anchored in Jiangyin, spending the year 1901 with the the Nanyang Fleet until peace was signed. In 1904 both ships were stationed at Zhifu harbor. Her sister ship was moving to Shanghai when she struck a reef and was stuck there and eventually lost, abandoned, leaving Hai Chi the sole ship of her class. The next years were uneventful for Hai Chi, due to limited budget for training. She spent these years mostly at anchor.

Revolution
In 1911, Hai Chi visited the United Kingdom, representing China at the grand fleet review in honor to George V's coronation, in Spithead. The British-built cruiser profited from it to make a stop at Newcastle and be equipped with a completely new electrical network and generators, at Armstrong Whitworth. She received a message about the Torreón massacre in Mexico, and soon sailed to visit the United States, Cuba and Mexico, possibly taking on nationals. On 11 September 1911, she became in effect the first Imperial Chinese warship to enter American waters. She soon sailed to Cuba and then Mexico. The country, under the gun's threat, agreed to Chinese demands for reparations and took action against the rebels. Hai Chi then sailed home, mission accomplished, only to discover the Empire has fallen and that a new government was in place. This was the Republic of China.

Hai Chi therefore changed flag, swapping the old dragon on yellow background of the Empire to the red-blue and sun symbol of the Republic. However, the situation was agitated, civil war was near. In 1917, the cruiser joined the fleet loyal to Sun Yat-sen's Constitutional Protection Movement. War erupted against the secessionist Beijing government. In 1923, Hai Chi returned in the north, and in 1926 joined the Fengtian clique, headed by Gen. Zhang Zuolin in Manchuria. Manchuria was lost to Japan after the Mukden Incident in 1931, and Hai Chi sailed to Qingdao with other Fengtian ships and carrying troops. Soon after was constituted the ROC Navy's 3rd Fleet. In 1933 due to the fleet commander fauling to pay the crews, Hai Chi sailed with two other ships south and, to the Guangdong navy. In 1935, the governor of Guangdong province disgruntled the crews, and Hai Chi, and another cruiser, fought heir way through a blockade and reach Hong Kong, and from there, sailed to Nanjing. There, after negociations, a compromise was found, and the ships were now nominally part of the Third Fleet, but under direct command of the ministry of defence.

As the sino-Japanese war erupted two years later, Hai Chi, which by that time has been little modernized, was scuttled as a blockship in the Yangtze River. This decision was taken on 11 August 1937, to obstruct the Japanese advance. It was motivated by simple common sense, as she would have stood little chance against modern Japanese cruisers and battleships, or the aviation. Without any significant modernization she was toothless indeed. However her main guns were still valuable enough to be dismantled before scuttling. Her heavy and secondary guns were later installed in the riverine defences of Wuhan. So the cruiser never had the occasion to fight the Japanese.






Various photos of the Hai Chi and sailors in 1911, now part of the American Congress collection, open source.

The Hai Tien in service

Hai Tien, although laid down 16 February 1897, three months after Hai Chi, launched 25 November 1897, before Hai Chi, was also completed a month ahead, but despite of this many historians still consider this the Hai Chi class. She was handed over to reconstitute China's Beiyang Fleet by August 1899. Hai Tien had a brief and uneventful career for Qing, as soon after the start of Boxer Rebellion, as chaos predominated, the Beiyang Fleet sailed to reinforce the Dagu forts on 31 May 1900. There was an uneasy state of high alert as a massive foreign fleet of 23 warships assembled in the area, facing the Chinese fleet. Tensions went a step further but still no ship ever fired a shot, until the deadlock was broken on 16 June 1900: The Eight-Nation Alliance fleet moved for a decisive outcome, anchoring off Dagu and making an ultimatum to the forts, intimating them to surrender or face a heavy shelling. This was in order to relieve International Legations siege in Beijing, the famous "55 days".

The commanding officer of the forts was named General Luo Rongguang. He refused, and ordered to open fire on the foreign ships, leading to the Battle of Dagu Forts. At the same time, the more prudent governor of Shandong, Yuan Shikai, thought the Boxer rebellion was pointless. He ordered the Beiyang fleet south to preserve her in case of a sea battle where its stood little chance, and tp prevent these ships to be captured. Indeed he remembered what happened to the four newly acquired, German-built Hai Long-class destroyers and torpedo gunboat Fei Ting, captured by alliance during the capture of the docks near the Forts of Dagu (Taku). Off Taku forts, the Beiyang fleet was now limited to the cruisers Hai Tien, Hai Chou, Hai Chen, and the torpedo gunboat Hai Ying. They sailed to Shanghai, and Jiangyin, where they anchored to spend 1901 with the the Nanyang Fleet, until the end of the war, which was signed on 7 September 1901. There, the entire combined Chinese fleet was preserved for better days, which appeared as a wise decision.

Four years later, at 5:30 AM, 25 April 1904, the cruiser Hai Tien sailed under command Liu Guanxiong (future admiral of the Qin fleet), heading for Shanghai, from Zhifu harbour. She crossed hevy fog off Weihai, overshot the entrance to the Yangtze River, and hit a pinnacle rock close to the Shengsi Islands (Hangzhou Bay). The cruiser's crew could do little as the ship was stuck in such position ot would take a lot to tow her. The captain ordered to abandon her in the evening. The crew was rescued by Chinese customs cruisers. Subsequently, attempts were made to salvage the Ha Tien. But they all failed. Ultimately it was decided to save her 8 inch 45 caliber main guns. She was struck from the Chinese naval register and her hull was left there to rust and being battered by the elements. Its last remains are still buried under the sands of the area.

Chinese_cruiser_Hai_Chi-wreck
Hai_Tien-1899-wrecked Two photos of the wreck of Hai Tien in 1904 (cc).

Naval History

⚙ 1870 Fleets
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Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1870 中华帝国海军
Danish Navy 1870 Dansk Marine

Hellenic Navy 1870 Πολεμικό Ναυτικό
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti
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Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
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Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
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Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
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Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
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Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
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Carracciolo (1869)
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Imperial Japanese navy 1898 大日本帝國海軍
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Российский флот
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Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska marinen
Danish Navy 1898 Søværnet

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
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armada 1898 1898 Armada

WW1

Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
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Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries
Neutral countries
Argentinian navy Argentina

Brazilian Navy Brazil
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Chilean Navy 1914 Chile

Chinese navy 1914 China
Cuban Navy 1914 Cuba
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece
Haitian Navy 1914 Haiti

Mexican Navy Mexico

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Peruvian Navy 1914 Peru
Portuguese navy 1914 Portuguese
Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spanish Armada Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Thai Empire Navy 1914 Thailand
South American Navies 1914 Americas
Other third-rate navies of the world 3rd rank navies

Central Empires


WW2

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

allied ww2 Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

allied ww2Neutral/small Fleets

small fleet ww2

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn Chinese Navy

Ning Hai class Cruisers (1931)
Chinese Gunboats

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy
No Hellenic-built ship to cover yet.
Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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