Barbaros Hayreddin, Turgut Reis (1910)

The Turkish fleet modern battleships; Barbarossa class

The Barbarossa class battleships were the first modern pre-dreadnoughts, capital ships of the Ottoman Navy, named respectively Hayrediin Barbarossa and Turgut Reis. These were the ex-Weissenburg and Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm, which after years of service were no longer relevant and considered obsolete in 1910. The Turkish Ottoman government purchased, carefully planned and worked out by the German military attache allowed to secure some cash while giving the Turkish Navy a way to re-establish the balance after recent Greek purchases, notably the Giorgios Averoff.

They were named, for the first after the most famous admiral which secured Ottoman dominance of the Mediterranean in the 16th Century, and the second after the other admiral which extended this dominance to across North Africa. After they took their first commission, the balance indeed leaned towards Turkey again. Both ships became quite active and had a fairly long career compared to the first two sister-ships of the Brandenburg class, Brandenburg and Wörth.

NRP Torgut Reis in 1918
NRP Torgut Reis in 1918

Previous history and purchase

The Brandenburg class has been Germany's first true battleships. They succeeded to a serie of six much smaller armoured coast defence armored ships, named after Norse gods. They were a symbol of the will of the new German Empire, united since a mere twenty years, to assert itself as the dominant naval power of the Baltic. The four ships of the class inaugurated a serie of "first" for Germany, and entered service in late 1893, conducting sea trials until 1894.

They showed many teething issues like propulsion machinery requiring lengthy repairs, boiler explosions, faulty valves. These problems showed the value of a careful manufacturing mastery and post-production quality checks. These errors were never repeated in the next classes. These battleships saw extensive service, including the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. From 1907 they entered the reserve squadron, underwent some overhaul, and stayed in reserve in 1911. Brandenburg and Wörth took part in the Vth BS squadron affected to coastal defense duties on the north sea. From 1916 both ships were disarmed and the guns converted to railways and sent to the western front.

SMS Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm in service

Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm and Weissenburg also had some intensive service before 1910. The first spent her early career mostly in the Baltic, visiting western ports after crossing the Skagerrak strait from May 1899. She visited Falmouth, went as far as the bay of Biscay, and reached Lisbon. She also participated to the naval review celebrating Queen Victoria's 80th birthday. Like her sister ship of the I Division she was deployed in China during the Boxer rebellion.



By that time she was part of the German East Asia Squadron, which consisted of the protected cruisers Kaiserin Augusta, Hansa, Hertha, and the small cruisers Irene, Gefion, and gunboats Jaguar and Iltis. She was soon joined by the three other ships of the Brandenburg class, six cruisers, 10 freighters escorted by three torpedo boats, landing six regiments of marines. She blockaded the Yangtze River.

Back in Germany, after a refit in 1902-1905 and a period of exercises she became the flagship of the Cuxhaven reserve squadron which also comprised the coastal defense ships Ägir and Frithjof, the minelaying cruisers Nautilus and Albatross, and the avisos Blitz, Pfeil, and Zieten. She made manoeuvres with the Hochseeflotte, returned and then re-emerged from reserve in 1909.

SMS Weissenburg in service

SMS Weissenburg had a relatively similar career, with I Division until 1900, with training exercises and goodwill visits. These exercises were especially important and were made under the watchful eye of Alfred von Tirpitz, the great architect of the fleet. Weissenburg also went to China with her sister-ships in 1900–1901 (Boxer Rebellion). She was thoroughly reconstructed and modernized, albeit at a prohibitive cost, in 1904–1905 at Kaiserliche Werft.

Her career of exercises in the Baltic resumed, she damaged her ram bow which was repaired, and served until 1909 when she was placed in reserve. She was decommissioned on 29 September 1907, formally with the Reserve Formation. She was reactivated in the summer of 1910 for another exercise conducted her and her sister-ship to Turkey after her purchase.

The purchase, to form the Barbarossa class

By late 1909, the German military attaché to the Ottoman Empire started a discussion with the Ottoman Navy staff about a possible sell of some Brandenburg class warships, in order to counter the recent Greek naval expansion. Negotiations went for months, back and forth, whereas the Ottoman Navy staff tried to purchase one of the Von der Tann class ships. The Germans on their side wanted to sell the entire Brandenburg class, at 10 million marks.

Eventually the option of purchasing the Weissenburg and Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm only was based as they were the most recent of the four. This limitation was both a cost-saving measure and reflected the sign Greek expansion seemed closed at that point. The two battleships were renamed and officially transferred on 1 September 1910 and 12 September respectively. The German Reichsmarineamt struck them from the naval register retrospectively on 31 July.



The Ottoman Navy received the Barbarossa class battleships with German crews that travelled on them, but the latter soon departed back to Germany, leaving the Ottoman Navy crewing the ships with hasty formed recruits. Having no proper cadets academy, the Navy was forced to recruit on other ships, somewhat crippling the capacity of the fleet for some time. The lack of proper maintenance also quickly showed up. These ships suffered from condenser problems and were forced to sail at 8 to 10 knots (15 to 19 km/h; 9 to 12 mph) in manoeuvres.

Design of the Barbarossa class battleships

As designed, the Barbarossa class ships displaced 10,013 t (9,855 long tons), and 10,670 t (10,500 long tons) fully loaded. They measured 115.7 m (379 ft 7 in) overall for a beam of 19.5 m (64 ft) and 7.9 m (25 ft 11 in) draught. Just before the Boxer war they received wireless telegraphy sets, the first German ships fitted with this system.

Powerplant

They had machinery consisting of two screw propellers connected to two shafts mater on triple-expansion steam engines, fed by the steam produced by 12 Scotch marine boilers. The ensemble was rated for 10,000 metric horsepower (9,900 ihp), enough on paper for 16.5 knots (30.6 km/h; 19.0 mph), also this was quite reduced by 1910, even after the refit. Their range was 4,300 nmi (8,000 km; 4,900 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). Their crew consisted of 38 officers and 530 enlisted men.

Armament of the Barbarossa class battleships

Both ships were armed with three twin turrets, including two with 28 cm (11 in) MRK L/40 caliber Krupp guns, and the central turret with two 28 cm (11 in) MRK L/35 caliber guns. The idea was to reduce the overall length of the barrel to allow a better firing arc in this central position. These main guns were unique, only done for this class. The mixture of L/35 and L/40 guns was also allowed by the absence of a centralized fire control.

The guns were built from hoops, using a horizontal wedge breech mechanism and placed on mountings using hydraulic power and steam pumps. However the breech mechanisms was man-handled as well as the ramming. The weight of the 28 cm ammunitions still allowed this. The true bore was 28.3 cm (11.1"). Each gun was 44 tonnes, 11 m in length, with a chamber volume of 8,723 in3 (142.9 dm3) and average rate of fire of one round every two minutes. 60 rounds were provisioned for each gun so 360 in all, fired at a 2,690 fps (820 mps) muzzle velocity. The bag-charge projectile could be either an AP round L/2,6 2 of 530.7 lbs. (240.7 kg) or the HE L/2,9 529 lbs. (240 kg) varying 76-82 cm in length.

The original secondary armament comprised eight 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK L/35 guns and the light armament eight 8.8 cm (3.5 in) SK L/30 naval guns and six 45 cm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes for close quarters. -The 10.5 SK L/35 were a bit light compared to the British 6-in or French Canet 164 mm, but widespread in the fleet and was a pure Schnelladekanone, or quick-firing gun. This 10.5 cm/35 (4.1") SK L/40 only used on the Brandenburg class used an horizontally sliding breech mechanism. Each gun measured 3.6 m and weighted 1,270 kg. The rate of fire on paper was ten, reduced in average to 6-7 with a well trained crew. After modernization, this gun was given the unique 1907 HE round weighting 47.2 lbs. (21.4 kg).

It is assumed that alongside, the older 1891 AP weighted 40.1 lbs. (18.2 kg) was also available. The propellant charge was the 6.24 lbs. (2.83 kg) RP C/06. Muzzle velocity was 2,034 fps (620 mps) for the 1891 AP shell and 1,968 fps (600 mps) for the 1907 HE model. Each gun was assigned 145 rounds. Originally the torpedo tubes were on above-water swivel mounts. During their first service modernization, the anti-torpedo defence was bolstered by four 3.7 cm (1.5 in) Maxim guns installed in the fighting tops. They had an average rate of fire of 33 rpm.

Ottoman fleet vs Greek fleet

Armor protection of the Barbarossa class battleships

The Belt was 400 mm (15.7 in) thick, way above any caliber of the time, and also as a defence against torpedoes. The main gun barbettes walls were 300 mm (11.8 in) thick backed by 210 mm of teak wood, while the armored deck was 60 mm (2.4 in) in thickness. ASW protection was also well done, with an enclosed citadel and internal bulkheads plus watertight doors with an automatic closing system. However the connection between the belt and deck of the citadel was effective only at deflecting short-range shells and could not have resisted plunging fire. The conning tower forward had 300 mm walls and a 30 mm roof.

The Barbarossa class battleships in action

Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm and Weissenburg became the Barbaros Hayreddin and Turgut Reis respectively but immediately suffered from chronic machinery problems. The main culprit was that the crews has not been trained to properly maintain the propulsion systems. In practice their effective speed fell to 8-10 knots on average (15 to 19 km/h; 9 to 12 mph). This allowed them to sail with the older Turkish modernized ironclads, but against modern adversaries, they were just too slow to manoeuvrer effectively. Their role was more to show the flag and make a form of deterrence towards Greece.

Italo-Turkish war 1911

This did not prevented Italy to cross swords with Turkey in War that broke out in September 1911. Knowing these limitations and the strength of the Regia Marina, of another order of magnitude than Greece, the Ottoman fleet safely stayed beyond the range of the Dardanelles fortifications. Neglect of the fleet during the conflict meant the ships were in even worse condition in October 1912. As reported by officers on duty, the telephone systems were out of service and most watertight doors unable to close. Worst still, the rangefinders and the ammunition hoists had been removed.

Balkan war 1912

Right after the Italo-Turkish War, the Balkan League declared war in turn on the Ottoman Empire, encouraged by Italy's success and apparent ease. The Barbarossa and Turgut Reis this time were called to action to support at first Ottoman forces defending against Bulgarian troops in Thrace. In December 1912, the fleet was made into a task force charged to deal with the Greek Royal Hellenic Navy in the Aegean Sea. The Barbaros Hayreddin became the flagship of the division.

This fleet made a first sortie to try to lure the blockading Greek fleet out, which succeeded, leading to the Battle of Elli. In it the Greek armored cruiser Georgios Averof easily outmaneuvered the Ottoman squadron as it was feared. The Greeks effectively cross-fired it between the Averof and the three Hydra-class ironclads. The damage was considerable, and seeing there was no hope, the Ottoman admiral asked to retreated back to the Dardanelles. The Greeks then soon blockaded once more the entrance.

Battle of Elli BG
The battle of Elli, December 1912: Both battleships were crossed-fired by skilfully manoeuvring Greeks

There was an attempt to break the Greek blockade on 18 January 1913, resulting in the Battle of Lemnos. Barbaros Hayreddin and Turgut Reis again were copiously fired upon, taking many hits, but only took minor damage. They eventually withdrawn without achieving any result. For the rest of the war, the Ottoman Navy operated in the Sea of Marmora and Black Sea, against Bulgarian forces. They covered the Çatalca garrison through March 1913.

The battle of Lemnos

This last naval clash of the war resulted from an Ottoman plan to lure the Georgios Averof away from the Dardanelles. The cruiser Hamidiye was chosen for the task, as the fastest ship in the navy. She successfully evaded the Greek blockade, broke out into the Aegean Sea. It was assumed that the Georgios Averof would be sent to hunt her down but the Greek commander refused to detach his flagship and stayed still. Both Barbarossa class battleships participated.

By mid-January, and Ramiz Numan Bey, the fleet commander pressured by his hierarchy, decided to attack the Greeks anyway. Turgut Reis, Barbaros Hayreddin, and the rest of the Ottoman fleet left the Dardanelles at 08:20, 18 January. They headed for the island of Lemnos at 11 knots (20 km/h; 13 mph). Barbaros Hayreddin led the line with a flotilla of torpedo boats guarding the flanks, a lesson learnt from the previous battle.

Georgios Averof set sail, together with the three Hydra-class ironclads and five destroyers protecting their back, and intercepted the Ottoman fleet 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) from Lemnos. At 10:55, the cruiser Mecidiye spotted the fleet and the Turks turned south to face them.

The battle started with a long-range artillery duel which ended around 11:55, after which the distance fell to 8,000 m (26,000 ft). Both battleships concentrated their fire on Georgios Averof at 12:00. 50 minutes later, the Greeks manoeuvred to "cross the T" of the Ottoman fleet, but the latter, well led by a skillful commander, turned north and this failed. The Ottoman commander then detached the old Mesudiye seriously damaged, ordered to withdrawn.

Barbaros Hayreddin took serious hits and her speed fell to 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph), Turgut Reis took in turn the lead of the formation, but eventually Ramiz Numan Bey decided this was enough and broke off the engagement. One hour later, the Ottoman fleet was back in the shadow of the Dardanelles fortresses and the Greeks in hot pursuit withdrawn in turn. Both battleships spent 800 rounds, mostly from their main battery, but scored no hits. The barbettes of both battleships were damaged and disabled, while they had been ravaged by fire.

It seems obvious that the Greek gunners were certainly more skilled, but there are reasons why the Turks performed so poorly. Due to the lack of rounds, training was inexistent, and worst, the rangefinders of both ships had been removed, making quite a loss of accuracy. The ship's 28cm compared on paper favourably to the four 234 mm artillery of the Averoff, which were in fact more recent BL 9.2 inch Mk X gun 48 calibers, completed by eight quick-firing 190 mm guns and state of art rangefinders with a well trained crew. This allowed this armoured cruiser to take on both battleships with ease.

From the war's end to 1914

On 8 February 1913, the Ottoman navy was covering an amphibious assault at Şarköy. Both Barbarossa class battleships teamed up with two small cruisers, making this artillery support on the right flank, from a km off shore; Turgut Reis was placed behind Barbaros Hayreddin. The Bulgarian army fought hard but ultimately the Ottoman army was forced to retreat, always covered by gunfire from the fleet. Turgut Reis fired alone spent 225 secondary rounds and 202 light round (8.8 cm guns).

By March, both ships were in the Black Sea, resuming support of the Çatalca garrison, while under pressure and renewed attacks by the Bulgarian army. On March, 26, a fierce artillery barrage including 28 cm shells successfully repelling the Bulgarian 2nd Brigade (1st Infantry Division). On 30 March, the left Ottoman wing started to breakthrough and chase the retreating Bulgarians, and this was assisted all along by field artillery the fleet's heavy guns, at extreme range. Thanks for good coordination, 1,500 m (4,900 ft) were taken by nightfall.

The Bulgarians came back with the 1st Brigade and fend off the Ottoman advance. They were back to their original positions On 11 April. The fleet then steamed to Çanakkale, so that the Barbarossa class battleships could provide efficient distant cover for a lighter light flotilla trying to spot Greek warships. The clash ended with an inconclusive engagement.

Barbarossa class battleships in the great war

The Turkish fleet in a German wartime article Src

When in August 1914 the war broke out, the Ottoman Empire was neutral, for a few days, before a "gift" was made with the transfer of two brand new German Navy ships, the Goeben and Breslau, renamed Yavuz and Midilli respectively. Both ships became the de facto head of the fleet, whereas rear-admiral Souchon was entrusted by the Sultan as the new great admiral of the Ottoman fleet. Meanwhile, from 3 August 1914, Barbaros Hayreddin started refit at Constantinople, supervised by German engineers and inspectors. They found that not only her but other Ottoman warships in the dockyard were in an appealing state of disrepair and lack of maintenance. Repairs were reported while instead ammunition, coal, and other supplies were loaded on board.

The Central Powers succeeded in November to draw the Turkish Empire to their side. The Barbarossa class battleships by that time have been partially disarmed in late 1914, and until early 1915. Their light guns has been sent to improve the defenses of the Dardanelles, though they retained their main batteries, the old 28 cm Krupp guns, 12 in all, to be used as floating batteries in support of the Dardanelles fortresses.

Indeed, the Barbarossa class guns were put to good use during the Dardanelles campaign. In March 1915 however, the Ottoman command decided to alternate stations, in order for the ship to retire for maintenance and supply. In April, the Gallipoli campaign reached its zenith, with a combined British-French battleships fleet entering the Dardanelles and shelling the forts, silencing them one by one. They would retire thanks to the daring night minelaying by the Nusret, sinking or disabling five capital ships. From there, only submarines will try to break out whereas on land, the stalemate was patent after the landings.

On 8 August, the British submarine HMS E11 succeeded in breaking through and spotting the Barbaros Hayreddin, as she moved into position to bombard Allied forces. The submersible launched a volley of four torpedoes, and hit the ship, which, due to the previous lack of maintenance, quickly listed and eventually capsized, causing great losses of lives.

The catastrophe conducted the Ottomans to withdraw Turgut Reis in turn, as a sole survivor of the Barbarossa class battleships. For the remainder of the war, she remained out of service, until January 1918. By that time, she was the only ship capable of towing the disabled battlecruiser Yavuz Sultan Selim, damaged and running aground after the Battle of Imbros. The old Turkish battleship made the exploit of effectively reaching and taking the precious ship in tow, under the safety of the inner Dardanelles, despite British combined forces hot on her heels.

Turgut Reis was decommissioned in October 1918 and remained inactive and without crew until 1924–1925. It was decided to modernize her, and use the ship as a training vessel. She has been partially disarmed, only keeping one of her main battery turrets aboard. Decommissioned again in 1933, she stayed used as a barracks ship for 17 more years, and was sold in 1950 then broken up in 1957. By that time she was the oldest battleship afloat.

illustration of the Barbarossa 1914
Illustration of the Heyreddin Barbarossa in 1915

Specifications (1914)

-Displacement: 10,670 tonnes Fully Loaded
-Dimensions: 115.7 x 20 x 7.9 m (380 x 64 x 25 ft)
-Propulsion: 4 shafts TE engines, 12 Scotch marine boilers 10,000 hp. 16.5 knots max.
-Range: 4,500 nmi (8,300 km; 5,200 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph)
-Crew: 38 +530
-Armour: Belt: 3-400 mm, Barbettes: 300 mm, Deck: 60 mm, CT 300 m
-Armament: see notes

Read More
Conway's all the world's fighting ships 1865-1905
Barlas, D. Lek; Güvenç, Serhat (2002). "To Build a Navy with the Help of Adversary: Italian-Turkish Naval Arms Trade, 1929–32
Bennett, Geoffrey (2005). Naval Battles of the First World War.
Güvenç, Serhat; Barlas, Dilek (2003). "Atatürk's Navy: Determinants of Turkish Naval Policy, 1923–38
Herwig, Holger H. (1998) [1980]. "Luxury" Fleet: The Imperial German Navy 1888–1918
Second Hague Convention, Section 13
//www.naval-encyclopedia.com/ww1/germany/brandenburg-class-battleships.php
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandenburg-class_battleship
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Weissenburg
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMS_Kurf%C3%BCrst_Friedrich_Wilhelm

Naval History

⚙ 1870 Fleets
Argentinian Navy 1870 Armada de Argentina
Spanish Navy 1870 Armada Espanola
Austro-Hungarian Navy 1870 K.u.K. Kriegsmarine

Chinese Imperial Navy 1870 中华帝国海军
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Hellenic Navy 1870 Πολεμικό Ναυτικό
Haitian Navy 1914Haiti
Koninklije Marine 1870 Koninklije Marine
Dutch Screw Frigates & corvettes
De Ruyter Bd Ironclad (1863)
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A.H.Van Nassau Frigate (1861)
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Marine Française 1870 Marine Nationale
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Curieux class sloops (1860)
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Barrozo class (1864)
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Turkish Ottoman navy 1870 Osmanlı Donanması
Osmanieh class Bd.Ironclads (1864) Assari Tewfik (1868) Assari Shevket class Ct. Ironclads (1868) Lufti Djelil class CDS (1868) Avni Illah class cas.ironclads (1869) Fethi Bulend class cas.ironclads (1870) Barbette ironclad Idjalleh (1870) Messudieh class Ct.Bat.ships (1874) Hamidieh Ct.Bat.Ironclads (1885) Abdul Kadir Batleships (project)
Ertrogul Frigate (1863) Selimieh (1865) Rehberi Tewkik (1875) Mehmet Selim (1876) Sloops & despatch vessels Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Monitor Atahualpa (1865) CT. Bat Independencia (1865) Turret ship Huascar (1865) Frigate Apurimac (1855) Corvette America (1865) Corvette Union (1865)
Regia Marina 1870 Regia Marina 1870
Imperial Japanese navy 1870 大日本帝國海軍
Prussian Navy 1870 Preußische Marine
Russian mperial Navy 1870 Российский флот
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Danish Navy 1870 Søværnet
Royal Navy 1870 Royal Navy
Union Civil War Union fleet Union Navy
Union Sailing ships
monitors & armored ships
USS New Ironsides (1862)
uss monitor
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USS Keokuk (1862)

wooden screw Frigates
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wooden screw sloops
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Confederate Confederate Navy
CSS Frederickburg (1862)
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⚙ 1898 Fleets
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K der Neth., rig. turret ship (1874)
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Cerbere class arm. rams (1870)
Tonnerre class Br. Monitors (1875)
Tempete class Br. Monitors (1876)
Tonnant Barbette ship (1880)
Furieux Barbette ship (1883)
Fusee class Arm. Gunboats (1885)
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Jemmapes class C.Defense ships (1890)

La Galissonière Cent. Bat. Ironclads (1872)
Bayard class barbette ships (1879)
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Prot. Cruiser Sfax (1884)
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Forbin class Cruisers (1888)
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Friant class Cruisers (1893)
Prot. Cruiser Suchet (1893)
Descartes class Cruisers (1893)
Linois class Cruisers (1896)
D'Assas class Cruisers (1896)
Catinat class Cruisers (1896)

R. de Genouilly class Cruisers (1876)
Cruiser Duquesne (1876)
Cruiser Tourville (1876)
Cruiser Duguay-Trouin (1877)
Laperouse class Cruisers (1877)
Villars class Cruisers (1879)
Cruiser Iphigenie (1881)
Cruiser Naiade (1881)
Cruiser Arethuse (1882)
Cruiser Dubourdieu (1884)
Cruiser Milan (1884)

Parseval class sloops (1876)
Bisson class sloops (1874)
Epee class gunboats (1873)
Crocodile class gunboats (1874)
Tromblon class gunboats (1875)
Condor class Torpedo Cruisers (1885)
G. Charmes class gunboats (1886)
Inconstant class sloops (1887)
Bombe class Torpedo Cruisers (1887)
Wattignies class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)
Levrier class Torpedo Cruisers (1891)

Marinha do Brasil 1898 Marinha do Brasil
Siete de Setembro class (1874)
Riachuleo class (1883)
Aquidaban class (1885)

Marina de Mexico 1898 Mexico
GB Indipendencia (1874)
GB Democrata (1875)

Turkish Ottoman navy 1898 Osmanlı Donanması
Cruiser Heibtnuma (1890)
Cruiser Lufti Humayun (1892)
Cruiser Hadevendighar (1892)
Shadieh class cruisers (1893)
Turkish TBs (1885-94)

Regia Marina 1898 Regia Marina Pr. Amadeo class (1871)
Caio Duilio class (1879)
Italia class (1885)
Ruggero di Lauria class (1884)
Carracciolo (1869)
Vettor Pisani (1869)
Cristoforo Colombo (1875)
Flavio Goia (1881)
Amerigo Vespucci (1882)
C. Colombo (ii) (1892)
Pietro Micca (1876)
Tripoli (1886)
Goito class (1887)
Folgore class (1887)
Partenope class (1889)
Giovanni Bausan (1883)
Etna class (1885)
Dogali (1885)
Piemonte (1888)
Staffeta (1876)
Rapido (1876)
Barbarigo class (1879)
Messagero (1885)
Archimede class (1887)
Guardiano class GB (1874)
Scilla class GB (1874)
Provana class GB (1884)
Curtatone class GB (1887)
Castore class GB (1888)

Imperial Japanese navy 1898 大日本帝國海軍
German Navy 1898 Kaiserliches Marine
Russian Imperial Navy 1898 Российский флот
Marina do Peru Marina Do Peru
Lima class Cruisers (1880)
Chilean TBs (1879)

Swedish Navy 1898 Svenska marinen
Danish Navy 1898 Søværnet

Royal Navy 1898 Royal Navy
HMS Hotspur (1870)
HMS Glatton (1871)
Devastation classs (1871)
Cyclops class (1871)
HMS Rupert (1874)
Neptune class (1874)
HMS Dreadnought (1875)
HMS Inflexible (1876)
Agamemnon class (1879)
Conqueror class (1881)
Colossus class (1882)
Admiral class (1882)
Trafalgar class (1887)
Victoria class (1890)
Royal Sovereign class (1891)
Centurion class (1892)
HMS Renown (1895)

HMS Shannon (1875)
Nelson class (1876)
Iris class (1877)
Leander class (1882)
Imperieuse class (1883)
Mersey class (1885)
Surprise class (1885)
Scout class (1885)
Archer class (1885)
Orlando class (1886)
Medea class (1888)
Barracouta class (1889)
Barham class (1889)
Pearl class (1889)

1898 war
US Navy 1898 1898 US Navy
armada 1898 1898 Armada

WW1

Entente Fleets

British ww1 Royal Navy
WW1 British Battleships
Majestic class (1894)
Canopus class (1897)
Formidable class (1898)
London class (1899)
Duncan class (1901)
King Edward VII class (1903)
Swiftsure class (1903)
Lord Nelson class (1906)
HMS Dreadnought (1906)
Bellorophon class (1907)
St Vincent class (1908)
HMS Neptune (1909)
Colossus class (1910)
Orion class (1911)
King George V class (1911)
Iron Duke class (1912)
Queen Elizabeth class (1913)
HMS Canada (1913)
HMS Agincourt (1913)
HMS Erin (1915)
Revenge class (1915)
B3 class (1918)

WW1 British Battlecruisers
Invincible class (1907)
Indefatigable class (1909)
Lion class (1910)
HMS Tiger (1913)
Renown class (1916)
Courageous class (1916)
G3 class (1918)

ww1 British cruisers
Blake class (1889)
Edgar class (1890)
Powerful class (1895)
Diadem class (1896)
Cressy class (1900)
Drake class (1901)
Monmouth class (1901)
Devonshire class (1903)
Duke of Edinburgh class (1904)
Warrior class (1905)
Minotaur class (1906)
Hawkins class (1917)

Apollo class (1890)
Astraea class (1893)
Eclipse class (1894)
Arrogant class (1896)
Pelorus class (1896)
Highflyer class (1898)
Gem class (1903)
Adventure class (1904)
Forward class (1904)
Pathfinder class (1904)
Sentinel class (1904)
Boadicea class (1908)
Blonde class (1910)
Active class (1911)
'Town' class (1909-1913)
Arethusa class (1913)
'C' class series (1914-1922)
'D' class (1918)
'E' class (1918)

WW1 British Seaplane Carriers
HMS Ark Royal (1914)
HMS Campania (1893)
HMS Argus (1917)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Vindictive (1918)
HMS Hermes (1919)

WW1 British Destroyers
River class (1903)
Cricket class (1906)
Tribal class (1907)
HMS Swift (1907)
Beagle class (1909)
Acorn class (1910)
Acheron class (1911)
Acasta class (1912)
Laforey class (1913)
M/repeat M class (1914)
Faulknor class FL (1914)
T class (1915)
Parker class FL (1916)
R/mod R class (1916)
V class (1917)
V class FL (1917)
Shakespeare class FL (1917)
Scott class FL (1917)
W/mod W class (1917)
S class (1918)

WW1 British Torpedo Boats
125ft series (1885)
140ft series (1892)
160ft series (1901)
27-knotters (1894)
30-knotters (1896)
33-knotters (1896)

WW1 British Submarines
Nordenfelt Submarines (1885)
Flower class sloops
British Gunboats of WWI
British P-Boats (1915)
Kil class (1917)
British ww1 Minesweepers
Z-Whaler class patrol crafts
British ww1 CMB
British ww1 Auxiliaries
Neutral countries
Argentinian navy Argentina

Brazilian Navy Brazil
Bulgarian Navy Bulgaria
Chilean Navy 1914 Chile

Chinese navy 1914 China
Cuban Navy 1914 Cuba
Danish Navy 1914 Denmark
Greek Royal Navy Greece
Haitian Navy 1914 Haiti

Mexican Navy Mexico

Dutch Empire Navy 1914 Netherlands
Norwegian Navy 1914 Norway

Peruvian Navy 1914 Peru
Portuguese navy 1914 Portuguese
Romanian Navy 1914 Romania
Spanish Armada Spanish Armada Swedish Navy 1914 Sweden
Thai Empire Navy 1914 Thailand
South American Navies 1914 Americas
Other third-rate navies of the world 3rd rank navies

Central Empires


WW2

allied ww2 Allied ww2 Fleets

US ww2 US Navy
WW2 American Battleships
Wyoming class (1911)
New York class (1912)
Nevada class (1914)
Pennsylvania class (1915)
New Mexico class (1917)
Tennessee Class (1919)
Colorado class (1921)
North Carolina class (1940)
South Dakota class (1941)
Iowa class (1942)
Montana class (cancelled)

WW2 American Cruisers
Omaha class cruisers (1920)
Northampton class heavy cruisers (1929)
Pensacola class heavy Cruisers (1928)
Portland class heavy cruisers (1931)
New Orleans class cruisers (1933)
Brooklyn class cruisers (1936)
USS Wichita (1937)
Atlanta class light cruisers (1941)
Cleveland class light Cruisers (1942)
Baltimore class heavy cruisers (1942)
Alaska class heavy cruisers (1944)

WW2 USN Aircraft Carriers
USS Langley (1920)
Lexington class CVs (1927)
USS Ranger (CV-4)
USS Wasp (CV-7)
Yorktown class aircraft carriers (1936)
Long Island class (1940)
Independence class CVs (1942)
Essex class CVs (1942)
Bogue class CVEs (1942)
Sangamon class CVEs (1942)
Casablanca class CVEs (1943)
Commencement Bay class CVEs (1944)
Midway class CVs (1945)
Saipan class CVs (1945)

WW2 American destroyers
Wickes class (1918)
Clemson class (1920)
Farragut class (1934)
Porter class (1935)
Mahan class (1935)
Gridley class (1936)
Bagley class (1936)
Somers class (1937)
Benham class (1938)
Sims class (1938)
Benson class (1939)
Fletcher class (1942)
Sumner class (1943)
Gearing class (1945)

GMT Evarts class (1942)
TE Buckley class (1943)
TEV/WGT Rudderow classs (1943)
DET/FMR Cannon class
Asheville/Tacoma class

WW2 American Submarines
Barracuda class
USS Argonaut
Narwhal class
USS Dolphin
Cachalot class
Porpoise class
Shark class
Perch class
Salmon class
Sargo class
Tambor class
Mackerel class
Gato Class

USS Terror (1941)
Raven class Mnsp (1940)
Admirable class Mnsp (1942)
Eagle class sub chasers (1918)
PC class sub chasers
SC class sub chasers
PCS class sub chasers
YMS class Mot. Mnsp
PT-Boats
ww2 US gunboats
ww2 US seaplane tenders
USS Curtiss ST (1940)
Currituck class ST
Tangier class ST
Barnegat class ST

US Coat Guardships
Lake class
Northland class
Treasury class
Owasco class
Wind class
Algonquin class
Thetis class
Active class

US Amphibious ships & crafts
US Amphibious Operations
Doyen class AT
Harris class AT
Dickman class AT
Bayfield class AT
Windsor class AT
Ormsby class AT
Funston class AT
Sumter class AT
Haskell class AT
Andromeda class AT
Gilliam class AT
APD-1 class LT
APD-37 class LT
LSV class LS
LSD class LS
Landing Ship Tank
LSM class LS
LSM(R) class SS
LCI(L) LC
LCT(6) LC
LCV class LC
LCVP class LC
LCM(3) class LC
LCP(L) class LC
LCP(R) class SC
LCL(L)(3) class FSC
LCS(S) class FSC
British ww2 Royal Navy

WW2 British Battleships
Queen Elisabeth class (1913)
Revenge class (1915)
Nelson class (1925)
King Georges V class (1939)
Lion class (Started)
HMS Vanguard (1944)
Renown class (1916)
HMS Hood (1920)

WW2 British Cruisers
British C class cruisers (1914-1922)
Hawkins class cruisers (1917)
British D class cruisers (1918)
Enterprise class cruisers (1919)
HMS Adventure (1924)
County class cruisers (1926)
York class cruisers (1929)
Surrey class cruisers (project)
Leander class cruisers (1931)
Arethusa class cruisers (1934)
Perth class cruisers (1934)
Town class cruisers (1936)
Dido class cruisers (1939)
Abdiel class cruisers (1939)
Fiji class cruisers (1941)
Bellona class cruisers (1942)
Swiftsure class cruisers (1943)
Tiger class cruisers (1944)

WW2 British Aircraft Carriers
Courageous class aircraft carriers (1928)
HMS Ark Royal (1937)
HMS Eagle (1918)
HMS Furious (1917)
HMS Hermes (1919)
Illustrious class (1939)
HMS Indomitable (1940)
Implacable class (1942)
Malta class (project)
HMS Unicorn (1941)
Colossus class (1943)
Majestic class (1944)
Centaur class (started 1944)

HMS Archer (1939)
HMS Argus (1917)
Avenger class (1940)
Attacker class (1941)
HMS Audacity (1941)
HMS Activity (1941)
HMS Pretoria Castle (1941)
Ameer class (1942)
Merchant Aircraft Carriers (1942)
Vindex class (1943)

WW2 British Destroyers
Shakespeare class (1917)
Scott class (1818)
V class (1917)
S class (1918)
W class (1918)
A/B class (1926)
C/D class (1931)
G/H/I class (1935)
Tribal class (1937)
J/K/N class (1938)
Hunt class DE (1939)
L/M class (1940)
O/P class (1942)
Q/R class (1942)
S/T/U//V/W class (1942)
Z/ca class (1943)
Ch/Co/Cr class (1944)
Battle class (1945)
Weapon class (1945)

WW2 British submarines
L9 class (1918)
HMS X1 (1923)
Oberon class (1926)
Parthian class (1929)
Rainbow class (1930)
Thames class (1932)
Swordfish class (1932)
HMS Porpoise (1932)
Grampus class (1935)
Shark class (1934)
Triton class (1937)
Undine class (1937)
U class (1940)
S class (1941)
T class (1941)
X-Craft midget (1942)
A class (1944)

WW2 British Amphibious Ships and Landing Crafts
LSI(L) class
LSI(M/S) class
LSI(H) class
LSS class
LSG class
LSC class
Boxer class LST

LST(2) class
LST(3) class
LSH(L) class
LSF classes (all)
LCI(S) class
LCS(L2) class
LCT(I) class
LCT(2) class
LCT(R) class
LCT(3) class
LCT(4) class
LCT(8) class
LCT(4) class
LCG(L)(4) class
LCG(M)(1) class

British ww2 Landing Crafts
LCA
LCP
LCM

WW2 British MTB/gunboats.
WW2 British MTBs
MTB-1 class (1936)
MTB-24 class (1939)
MTB-41 class (1940)
MTB-424 class (1944)
MTB-601 class (1942)
MA/SB class (1938)
MTB-412 class (1942)
MGB 6 class (1939)
MGB-47 class (1940)
MGB 321 (1941)
MGB 501 class (1942)
MGB 511 class (1944)
MGB 601 class (1942)
MGB 2001 class (1943)

WW2 British Gunboats

Denny class (1941)
Fairmile A (1940)
Fairmile B (1940)
HDML class (1940)

WW2 British Sloops
Bridgewater class (2090)
Hastings class (1930)
Shoreham class (1930)
Grimsby class (1934)
Bittern class (1937)
Egret class (1938)
Black Swan class (1939)

WW2 British Frigates
River class (1943)
Loch class (1944)
Bay class (1944)

WW2 British Corvettes
Kingfisher class (1935)
Shearwater class (1939)
Flower class (1940)
Mod. Flower class (1942)
Castle class (1943)

WW2 British Misc.
WW2 British Monitors
Roberts class monitors (1941)
Halcyon class minesweepers (1933)
Bangor class minesweepers (1940)
Bathurst class minesweepers (1940)
Algerine class minesweepers (1941)
Motor Minesweepers (1937)
ww2 British ASW trawlers
Basset class trawlers (1935)
Tree class trawlers (1939)
HMS Albatross seaplane carrier
WW2 British river gunboats

HMS Guardian netlayer
HMS Protector netlayer
HMS Plover coastal mines.
Medway class sub depot ships
HMS Resource fleet repair
HMS Woolwhich DD depot ship
HMS Tyne DD depot ship
Maidstone class sub depot ships
HmS Adamant sub depot ship

Athene class aircraft transport
British ww2 AMCs
British ww2 OBVs
British ww2 ABVs
British ww2 Convoy Escorts
British ww2 APVs
British ww2 SSVs
British ww2 SGAVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Mines.
British ww2 CAAAVs
British ww2 Paddle Mines.
British ww2 MDVs
British ww2 Auxiliary Minelayers
British ww2 armed yachts

allied ww2 Axis ww2 Fleets

Japan ww2 Imperial Japanese Navy
WW2 Japanese Battleships
Kongō class Fast Battleships (1912)
Fuso class battleships (1915)
Ise class battleships (1917)
Nagato class Battleships (1919)
Yamato class Battleships (1941)
B41 class Battleships (project)

WW2 Japanese cruisers
Tenryū class cruisers (1918)
Kuma class cruisers (1919)
Nagara class (1920)
Sendai class Cruisers (1923)
IJN Yūbari (1923)
Furutaka class Cruisers (1925)
Aoba class heavy cruisers (1926)
Nachi class Cruisers (1927)
Takao class cruisers (1930)
Mogami class cruisers (1932)
Tone class cruisers (1937)
Katori class cruisers (1939)
Agano class cruisers (1941)
Oyodo (1943)

Seaplane & Aircraft Carriers
Hōshō (1921)
IJN Akagi (1925)
IJN Kaga (1927)
IJN Ryujo (1931)
IJN Soryu (1935)
IJN Hiryu (1937)
Shokaku class (1937)
Zuiho class (1936) comp.40
Ruyho (1933) comp.42
Junyo class (1941)
IJN Taiho (1943)
Chitose class (comp. 1943)
IJN Shinano (1944)
Unryu class (1944)
IJN Ibuki (1942)

Taiyo class (1940)
IJN Kaiyo (1938)
IJN Shinyo (1934)

Notoro (1920)
Kamoi (1922)
Chitose class (1936)
Mizuho (1938)
Nisshin (1939)

IJN Aux. Seaplane tenders
Akistushima (1941)
Shimane Maru class (1944)
Yamashiro Maru class (1944)

Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation

WW2 Japanese Destroyers
Mutsuki class (1925)
Fubuki class (1927)
Akatsuki class (1932)
Hatsuharu class (1932)
Shiratsuyu class (1935)
Asashio class (1936)
Kagero class (1938)
Yugumo class (1941)
Akitsuki class (1941)
IJN Shimakaze (1942)

WW2 Japanese Submarines
KD1 class (1921)
Koryu class
Kaiten class
Kairyu class
IJN Midget subs

WW2 Japanese Amphibious ships/Crafts
Shinshu Maru class (1935)
Akistu Maru class (1941)
Kumano Maru class (1944)
SS class LS (1942)
T1 class LS (1944)
T101 class LS (1944)
T103 class LS (1944)
Shohatsu class LC (1941)
Chuhatsu class LC (1942)
Moku Daihatsu class (1942)
Toku Daihatsu class (1944)

WW2 Japanese minelayers
IJN Armed Merchant Cruisers
WW2 Japanese Escorts
Tomozuru class (1933)
Otori class (1935)
Matsu class (1944)
Tachibana class (1944)

WW2 Japanese Sub-chasers
WW2 Japanese MLs
Shinyo class SB

allied ww2Neutral/small Fleets

small fleet ww2

Armada de Argentina Argentinian Navy

Rivadavia class Battleships
Cruiser La Argentina
Veinticinco de Mayo class cruisers
Argentinian Destroyers
Santa Fe class sub. Bouchard class minesweepers King class patrol vessels

Marinha do Brasil Brazilian Navy

Minas Gerais class Battleships (1912)
Cruiser Bahia
Brazilian Destroyers
Humaita class sub.
Tupi class sub.

Armada de Chile Armada de Chile

Almirante Latorre class battleships
Cruiser Esmeralda (1896)
Cruiser Chacabuco (1911)
Chilean DDs
Fresia class subs
Capitan O’Brien class subs

Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn Chinese Navy

Ning Hai class Cruisers (1931)
Chinese Gunboats

Søværnet Danish Navy

Niels Juel
Danish ww2 Torpedo-Boats Danish ww2 submarines Danish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Merivoimat Finnish Navy

Coastal BB Ilmarinen
Finnish ww2 submarines
Finnish ww2 minelayers

Nautiko Hellenon Hellenic Navy

Greek ww2 Destroyers
Greek ww2 submarines
Greek ww2 minelayers

Marynarka Vojenna Polish Navy

Polish ww2 Destroyers
Polish ww2 cruisers
Polish ww2 minelayer/sweepers

Portuguese navy ww2 Portuguese Navy

Douro class DDs
Delfim class sub
Velho class gb
Albuquerque class gb
Nunes class sloops

Romanian Navy Romanian Navy

Romanian ww2 Destroyers
Romanian ww2 Submarines

Royal Norwegian Navy Sjøforsvaret

Norwegian ww2 Torpedo-Boats

Spanish Armada Spanish Armada

España class Battleships
Blas de Lezo class cruisers
Canarias class cruisers
Cervera class cruisers
Cruiser Navarra
Spanish Destroyers
Spanish Submarines
Dedalo seaplane tender
Spanish Gunboats
Spanish Minelayers

Svenska Marinen Svenska Marinen

Gustav V class BBs (1918)
Interwar swedish BB projects

Tre Kronor class (1943)
Gotland (1933)
Fylgia (1905)

Ehrernskjold class DDs (1926)
Psilander class DDs (1926)
Klas Horn class DDs (1931)
Romulus class DDs (1934)
Göteborg class DDs (1935)
Mode class DDs (1942)
Visby class DDs (1942)
Öland class DDs (1945)

Swedish ww2 TBs
Swedish ww2 Submarines
Swedish ww2 Minelayers
Swedish ww2 MTBs
Swedish ww2 Patrol Vessels
Swedish ww2 Minesweepers

Türk Donanmasi Turkish Navy

Turkish ww2 Destroyers
Turkish ww2 submarines

Royal Yugoslav Navy Royal Yugoslav Navy

Dubrovnik class DDs
Beograd class DDs
Hrabi class subs

Royal Thai Navy Royal Thai Navy

Taksin class
Ratanakosindra class
Sri Ayuthia class
Puket class
Tachin class
Sinsamudar class sub

minor navies Minor Navies


The Cold War

Hellenic Navy Hellenic Navy
No Hellenic-built ship to cover yet.
Royal Navy Royal Navy
Sovietskaya Flota Sovietskaya Flota
US Navy USN (1990)


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