Prologue: Early precursors (1800-1870s)
The invention of the “Torpedo”
Of course the torpedo was invented only in 1866 by Robert Whitehead, so just a year after the end of the Civil War, but the prototype was first created in 1863 by the Austro-Hungarian officer Ivan Lupis. Called salvacoste it has many shortcomings that were solved by Whitehead and made practical. Before that, the “torpedo” named after an electric ray sub-specy was essentially a naval mine. A towed gunpowder charge was first tested operationally by Robert Fulton in 1800 with its submarine Nautilus. There were other attempts of mining ships in the war of 1812, in the Crimean War in 1855.
USS Spuyten Duyvil, US Navy dedicated spar-torpedo vessel, 1863.
Torpedo ships of the American Civil War
But a real impetus came from the American Civil War, in particular with air-filled demijohn and powder charges that exploded on contact, later carried by spars. The spar-torpedo boat became in effect a precursor of the torpedo-boat, as the carrier was generally small and fast. That was a dangerous endeavor, reckless and desperate form of warfare to say the least, practiced by the Confederates to try to balance the huge advantage of the Union navy.
An enlarged CSS David was started, but captured at Charleston in 1865 before completion.
USS Cairo was sunk in 1862 by such contact mine. 30 feet (9.1 m) long spar was also carried by the HL Hunley, first “submarine” (propelled by a manned crankshaft). Despite sinking twice (with all hands), the innovative boat succeeded in destroying USS Housatonic.
CSS David daguerreotype
USS Spuyten Duyvil. Despite its overwhelming superiority on the Confederates, the Union navy also built a spar-torpedo boat in 1964.
Confederate river ironclad CSS Atlanta (1863), carrying a spar torpedo at the front.
Confederate river ironclad CSS Chicora (1862), carrying a spar torpedo at the front.
Other ships of the “Old Navy”
After the famous Monitor, the US Navy built other, less known classes like the Passaic, Miantonomoh, Canonicus, Kalamazoo, Milwaukee, Casco or the remarkable Dictator, a sea going monster. But other smaller ships has been converted to be used as torpedo rams, notably to destroy Confederate boats barrages on the James River. In addition to the Spuyten Duyvil (see above), two large experimental, iron-hulled ships were also built after the war in 1873, the Alarm and Intrepid. Both were too slow for their intended role.
USS Alarm, 1873 spar-torpedo vessel.
Unusual ships of the “New Navy”
Two interesting ships were built in the 1880-90s, one was not torpedo-carrying but experimented with another idea: launching dynamites with pneumatic guns. The USS vesuvius (we will come back on this very unique design) had three Zalinsky 55 feets pneumatic guns at the front on an open barbette. The projectiles weighted 980 Ibs, with 500 Ibs dynamite warheads. Launched in 1888 its only action with the not convincing bombardment of Santiago ten years later. However the USS Katahdin could have been a torpedo-ram in the European tradition. Launched in 1893, it had a very sloped hull, cigar-shaped, with a iron hulled backed by wood. But instead of TTs or a spar, she was fitted with four 6-pdr quick firing guns. Its most interesting feature was its hull was fitted with ballasts so she could be submerged before ramming.
Spanish destroyer Furor. The American Civil War broke out in 1898, but none of the commissioned TBs were ever put to action due to the distance both of Cuba and the Philippines. They did provide however an harbor coastal defence in the unlikely case of a retaliation by the metropolitan Spanish Navy on the US Coast.
American Torpedo Boats (1885-1899)
The famous Stiletto was not a very successful boat. Its contemporary namesake is an Experimental stealthy pentamaran capable of 60 knots.
A short lived experiment
For 15 years, the US Navy ventured into this kind of boat, not without reticence as many in the fleet advocated not for a defensive but more “active” stance on the international scene. Indeed Alfred Thayer Mahan became president of the Naval War College by default in 1886 and befriended with future president Theodore Roosevelt in 1888. Both had the same views about the duty of the US Navy. But whatever the case, by 1895 TBs were definitely out of the picture as the first American destroyers, more promising, took their place. The move was decidedly towards a “fleet in being”.
US Navy TBs Specifics
There are nevertheless specifics about American TBs. First, series were largely semi-experimental, with gradual improvements on small orders of 2-3 ships. In total, 35 had been built, and many were one-off experiments. The lightest has been the first Stiletto at 31 tons, the heaviest were the Nicholson serie, of 218 tonnes. Their average displacement was about 160 tons. They were fitted with either Thornycroft, Normand, Mosher or Seabury or locomotive boilers, used VTE engines (vertical triple expansion) and in rare cases, VQE (Quadruple expansion). The fastest has been the Dahlgren, at 31 knots, but average speed was 25 knots.
Stiletto, the first American TB.
Standard armament was composed of two to three 18 in Torpedo Tubes and one to three 1-pdr QF guns. They nearly all presented a front turtleback and some tumblehome all along their hull because of expected North Atlantic rough seas. Their average range however only allowed for short sorties of 50 miles, due to limited coal supplied, reaching 80 tonnes on the Nicholson.
They were many small shipyards involved, some more than the others. The most active in this area was Herreshoff, which turned seven TBs, including the first one, and will later rose to fame as the builders of eight consecutive successful defenders of the America’s Cup from 1893 to 1934. There is a museum accessible from Providence and Boston. Bath Iron Works (Kennebec River, Bath, Maine), launched five ships, Columbian iron Works (Baltimore, Maryland) five, followed by less known yards like Iowa Iron works (TB2), Moran (TB8), Wolff & Zwicker (TB12-13), Charles Hillman (TB17), George Lawley (TB27-28), Lewis Nixon (T29-30), WR Trigg (TB-31-33), and Gas Engine & Power and CL Seabury (which also built boilers) delivered the very last one, USS Wilkes alias TB35 in 1901. Only one was delivered by a foreign yard, world’s famous specialist Schichau in 1897, USS Somers, commissioned just a few days before the Spanish-American War.
USS Stiletto, illustration by the author
To simplify things, we will treat these TBs in three series: The “small” and “medium” TBs prior the the Spanish-American war of 1898 and the large post-war models of the Blakely class commissioned up to 1905.
The “light group” 1886-1898
USS Cushing, TB1.
The first one was called WTB1 to mark its experimental nature. Laid down at Herreshoff in 1885, launched in 1886 and commissioned in 1887 it was small (28.64 x 3.50 x 0.91m, 31 tons), had a flat deck, ram, but no TT. Instead it carried two Howell torpedoes, but only from 1898. It was fitted with an Almy boiler coupled with a vertical compound engine that turned a unique shaft, produced 395 ihp for a whooping 18.5 knots. Coal was limited to just four tons, and coastal rides. Shortly after its introduction in service, it was stranded ashore after a collision with a steam launch. This was a single funnel, wood-hulled boat that was confined to runs and experimental works. Bad steamer, her 1897 fuel trials were a failure. After being mothballed for some years, she was sold for scrap in 1911.
USS De Long.
Coastal TBs of the Talbot & Mackenzie class
Among the smallest American TBs, these two classes (Talbot, Gwin, Mackenzie, McKee) were authorized under the act of 10.6.1896. The first two (Herreshoff) had a single funnel, two single TTs far apart – one front of the funnel, one aft, and were both commissioned in April 1898. The Gwin was later used as a Ferry as Cyane in 1914 while the other was used from 1900 for oil fuel tests and decommissioned in 1925.
The two MacKenzie were quite different, 65 tons, same length at 30.94m but larger at 3.89m vs 3.81m, but the latter had a larger draught at 1.29 m vs. 0.99m. They also had Thornycroft instead of Normand boilers. Apart their two funnels and same three 18 in TTs, they had all a single 1-pdr gun but the USS McKee which had two. They also had two funnels. Both served as target ships, from 1912 (MacKee) and 1916 (MacKenzie).
USS Talbot, TB15
Talbot class specifications
|Dimensions||30.48 x3.81 x0.99 m|
|Propulsion||1 screw, 1 VTE, 2 Normand boilers, 850 ihp|
|Speed||20 knots (38 km/h; xx mph), coal 9 tons|
|Armament||2 TT 18 in, 1 x1pdr QF gun.|
USS Foote, illustration by the author
The “medium group” prior to 1898
This was by far the largest, with the singls USS Cushing, Ericsson, Rowan, Morris, and Somers, and the classes Foote, Porter, Dahlgren, and Davis.
USS Dahlgren, TB9.
The first official TB commissioned for service was the TB1, built by the same yard after many design revisions. It was laid down in April 1888, launched in January 1890 and completed in April the same year. She had two funnels far apart, ram bow, turtle back (the first), two broadside training 18 in TTs, and one fixed forward into the bow. Armament was heavy, with three 6-pdr guns. The TB1 was sunk as a practice target in 1920. She was used for experimental work.
USS Cushing, starboard side, 1891.
USS Ericsson (1894) was heavier (120 rather than 116 tons), and very similar but for its armament back to three lighter 1-pdr guns. It can reach 24 knots. From 1912 it was used as a target and sunk.
The Foote class (1896) comprised also the Rodgers and Winslow. They were commissioned in 1897-98. They had two funnels far apart, three TTs on each broadside and a third aft, and three 1-pdr gun. 142 tons, 48.76 m long, and two had Mosher instead of Thornycroft boilers but two shafts for 2000 ihp, and can run at 25 knots. They were sold in 1911-1920.
The Porter class (1896) from Herreschoff were 165 tons, 53.50 m long (175 feets) ships capable of 27.5 knots and armed with four 1-pdr guns. The first was sold in 1912, the second in 1920.
The Dahlgren class (1899) were 146 tons boats, 46.13 m long (151 feets), with a different armament of four 1-pdr but only two TTs, centerline, aft and far aft. They had Normand boilers and were the fastest of them all, reaching 1 knots. Details of their superstructure and funnels were also reminiscent of French designs. The Craven ended as target in 1913, the other served through WW1.
The Davis class (1898) comprised also the USS Fox (TB-13). These 1550 tons ships had two vertical triple expansion engines, coupled with Thornycroft boilers and were capable of 23 knots. They had three TTs in the usual disposition. Fox was sold in 1916, the other in 1920 after being decommissioned in 1913.
–USS Rowan was a 182 tons ship authorized under the act of 2.3.1895, and had funnels and TTs arranged like the Porter, but a raised forecastle. She was decommissioned in 1912 but only sold in 1918.
–USS Morris was a relatively light TB of 105 tons, 42.35 m (139’6”) long, with two funnels not far apart, and Normand boilers. She was capable of 23 knots and carried the usual armament of three TTs and three 1-pdr guns.
The USS Somers was German built at Schichau, as a private speculation, carried by the steam SS Manhattan on its way to US waters. She had a single funnel and three masts, two training TTs on the deck, and one submerged TT at the bow. It was 17.5 m (156 feets) long for 143 tons and its locomotive boilers fed a VQE engine which developed 1700 ihp, for 23 knots. Like other TBs in reserved she was renamed TB N°9 to left the name for a new destroyer.
Post war group: USS Blakeley class
This relatively homogeneous class counted the USS Blakely , USS DeLong, Nicholson, O’Brien, Shubrick, Stockton, Thornton, Tingey, and Wilkes (TB-27-35). They were assimilated because of the same 04.05.1898 order, but differed as much as their shipyards own specs: Their displacement ranged from 165 (Tingey) to 220 tonnes (O’Brien), but all measured 53.35 meters overall and 5.38 m in width (175′ and 17’8”) but with a underwater height of 1.42 to 1.98 m (6’6”). Their armament was also uniform, with the same three 18 in TTs (port, starboard, far aft) and three 1-pdr QF guns, but three 3-dpr for the Shubrick sub-class (Stockton, Thornton). Average top speed was 25 knots but Wilkes was the faster of them all, at 27 knots.
USS Blakeley, TB-27 underway off Grant’s tomb.
Nicholson sub-class specifications
|Dimensions||53.35 x5.18 x1.96 m|
|Displacement||218-220 tons FL|
|Propulsion||2 screws, 2 shafts VTE, 3 Mosher boilers, 3000 ihp|
|Speed||25 knots (47 km/h; xx mph), coal 80 tons|
|Armament||3 TT 18 in, 3 x1pdr QF guns.|
USS Fox, David class (TB-13), 1898.
American TBs in ww1
About 20 were left in service when the war broke out. Some were quickly converted as target ships, others were just mothballed and played no significant part in the operations but potentially some coastal patrols. They were not equipped for ASW warfare in any case. A good example of an “active carrer” was the USS Tingey (TB-34): She joined the Reserve Torpedo Flotilla (Norfolk Navy Yard), laying tied up at pier side, doing a few sorties to ensure its operational readiness. By 1908, she was part of the 3d Torpedo Flotilla, and next year “the Atlantic Torpedo Fleet”. She moved however late this year to Charleston, S.C., staying in reserve. In 1917, she was sent to the Philadelphia Navy Yard and decommissioned from 8 March to 7 April 1917. She patrolled the coastal waters of the 1st Naval District and was eventually renamed in September 1918 “Coast Torpedo Boat No. 17”, then decommissioned at Philadelphia on 30 January 1919, struck from the list and sold. USS Gwin and Morris survived until 1924-25.
Although the story of American TBs prior to ww1 seems like a footnote, quickly swapping over long-range destroyers instead, there was a revival of the concept in WW2, at the occasion of the Pacific War, shaped as the mass-built “PT boat” from Elco, Higgins and assimilated wooden type Motor torpedo boats, which disrupted Japanese shipping and sunk many military ships.
USS Bagley (TB-24), the first to carry a floatplane.
USS David (TB-12).
USS Bailey, TB-21.
USS Farragut, TB-11 off Mare Island Navy Yard circa 1899.
USS Goldsborough, TB-20.
USS Manley (TB-23), mothballed.
USS Porter (1898).
USS Morris, TB-14.
USS Rowan – TB-8.
USS Stringham (TB-19).
USS Somers (TB-22).