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naval battles

The great conflagrations of the past (Trafalgar, Aboukir) taught as "classic" battles of sailing ships of the line as well as what were Salamis and Lepanto to the galleys, we have moved from the second half of the century a new form of confrontation, out of traditional patterns of naval tactics because of the innovations of the industrial era. We do agree that the last great naval battle of ships sailing took place at Navarino in 1827. It was a coalition of Russian ships, English and French associates against the fleet of the Ottoman Empire, still formidable at that time, old adversary of the Western powers and Russia since precisely Lepanto in 1571. Specifically, some naval battles of the period will not be included, the simple fact that the industrial era is a period that begins roughly in 1820, but the naval battles "classics" like the famous Traflagar in 1805, the Navarino, and to those of 1853 and 55 between Russians and Turks are only fighting classic wooden vessels, mixed, sailing and battery side. War of the Duchies between Denmark and Prussia in 1864 will be a future article, as well as many others: Here is the list of future battles analyzed in this era before the battleships, from Wikipedia :

Wars of the empire:


-Battle of Guadeloupe (1800): The Frigate USS Constitution confronts and defeats the "Vengeance".
-Battle of Guyana (1800): Fighting between French and Portuguese vessels and French victory.
-Battle of Cayenne (1800): Fighting between the frigate USS Boston and the gun cradle, and American victory.
-Battle of Copenhagen (1801): A British fleet defeated the Danes.
-Battle of Algeciras (1801): Off the coast of Andalusia, a combined French-Spanish fleet defeated the British.
Battle of Pulo-Auca (Strait of Malacca, 1804): British victory over the French.
-Battle of the "fifteen to twenty" Cape Finisterre, Galicia coast, 1805: A squadron Fanco and Spain was defeated by the British. Four months later, the famous Battle of Trafalgar.
-Battle of Tobago (1805) for possession of the West Indies and British victory over France.
-Battle of Saint-Dominique (1806). The same scenario is repeated.
-Battle of Gibraltar (1806): An American victory over the Spaniards.
-Battle of Lemnos (1805): Russian victories against the Turks in the Aegean.
-Battle of Copenhagen (second name, 1807): British victory on the Danish fleet.
-Battle of Zealand Point Sejerø Island, British victory in 1808.
-Battle of the island of Aix (1809): A British fleet defeated a French squadron.
-Battle of Mauritius, called "the great port" (1810): French victory over the British.
-Battle of Lissa (first named in 1811): Win the British Franco-Venetian.
-Battle of Anholt (1811): British victory over the Danes.
-Battle of Basque Roads in 1812: Confrontation without a decision between the British and French.
-Battle of Lyngør (Norway) in 1812 between the British and Danes and the first victory.
-Battle of Büsum (Prussian coast, Baltic Sea) in 1813: Revenge of the British Danish.

Bolivarian wars of independence:

-Battle of Sorondo on the Orinoco in Venezuela in 1812: Spanish victory over the insurgents.
-Battle of Lake Maracaibo (1823): Revenge of Venezuelan Spain.
Battle of Port-Del Buceo (1814): In the Rio de la Plata, the Argentine terrace a Spanish squadron.

Columbia and American War 1813-1815:

-Battle of Lake Erie (1813): American Victory.
-Battle Lake Champain (1814): Same scenario.

War in the Balkans, Greek Independence:

-Battle of Chios (1822): Greek victory against the Turks.
-Battle of the Bay of Suda (1825): Greek victory against a Turkish-Egyptian coalition.
-Battle of Navarino (1827): Victory coalition of British, French and Russians on Turkish-Egyptian fleet.

War called "Cisplatin" (River Plate):

-Battle of Los Pozos (off Buenos Aires, 1826): Argentina win against Brazil.
-Battle-Lara-Quilmes (1826): Same scenario.
-Battle of Juncal (off Uruguay, 1827): Same
-Battle of Vila del Carmen (coast of Patagonia, 1827): Same
-Battle of Monte Santiago (1827): Brazil's Revenge.

War of the Great Colombia

-Battle of Malpelo (1828): Victory against the Peruvian Gran Colombia
-Battle of Cruces (1828): same scenario.

Russo-Turkish War of 1828:

-Battle of Braila: Russian Victory.

Portuguese Civil War:

-Battle of Vila da Praia (Azores, 1829): Victory of the Liberals on the absolutists.
-Battle of Cape St Vincent (Gibraltar, 1833): Same scenario.

Peruvian-Chilean War:

-Battle of Islay (Pacific, 1838): Combat undecided.
-Battle of Casma (Pacific, 1839): Chilean victory.

Insurrection in Yucatan

-Battle of Campeche (1843): Victory insurgents Yucatan and the Mexican Texans.

Franco-Vietnamese conflict :

-Battle of Tourane (1847): French victory over the fleet Thai imposing French colonial rule for a hundred years.

Crimean War (1853-1855):

-Battle of Pitsunda (1853, black sea coast of Georgia): Russian victory over the Turks.
-Battle of Sinope (1853, Black Sea): Same scenario.

American Civil War (1861-1865)

-Battle of Hampton Roads (1862, coast of Virginia): Combat undecided between Virginia and Monitor.
-Battle of Memphis (1862, Shelby County, Battle River): Union victory.
-Battle of Cherbourg (1864): Fighting between CSS Alabama and USS Kearsarge and win it.
-Battle of Mobile Bay (1864, coasts of Alabama): Union victory.

War of Duchies:

-Battle of Eckenford (1864): Prussian victory over the Danes
-Battle of Rügen (1864, Baltic): Danish victory over the Prussians.
-Battle of Heligoland (1864, North Sea): Danish victory over a Prussian-Austrian coalition.

War of the Triple Alliance:

-Battle of Riachuelo (Rio Prana, Paraguay, 1865): Brazilian victory over Paraguay.

War of the South Pacific:

-Battle of Papudo (Valparaiso, 1865): Chilean victory over Spain.
-Battle of Abtao (islands Chiloe, 1866): Peruvian-Chilean victory over Spain.
-Battle of Callao (peruvian Coast, 1866): Victory in Peru to Spain.

Austro-Italian War:

-Battle of Lissa (Adriatic, 1866): Austro-Hungarian victory over Italy.

Japanese civil war known as the Boshin war :

-Battle of Hakodate (1869): Victory of the Imperial fleet in the fleet of the Republic of Ezo.

Franco-Prussian War of 1870 :

-Combat in Havana (1870): Combat undecided between the gunboats and Bouvet Meteor.

War of the South Pacific II :

-Battle of Chipana (1879): Combat undecided between Peruvian and Chilean corvettes.
-Battle of Iquique (1879): Win two ships including a battleship Peruvians against two Chilean ships. The same day, one of the Peruvian vessel was then routed by a Chilean unit in Punta cranes.
-Battle of Angamos (1879): Chilean contrast with a whole squadron deployed against the battleship Huascar.

Franco-Chinese War of 1883 :

-Battle of Foochow (1884): French squadron victory of the Chinese fleet.
Battle-Shei-Poo (1885): French torpedo boats against two Chinese frigates which destroyed one another.

Sino-Japanese War of 1894 :

-Battle of Fengdao (1894): Japan's victory over Chinese units.
-Battle of Weihaiwei (1894): Japanese victory over a Chinese fleet.
-Battle of Yalu (1895): Same scenario.

Spanish-American War of 1898: (See chapter)

-Battle of Manila Bay (Cavite): American victory over a Spanish fleet at anchor.
-Battle of Cardenas (Cuba): Battle between three and five American Spanish gunboats. Spanish victory.
-Battle of Santiago de Cuba: American victory over the Spanish squadron in Cuba.

Evolutions of battles following the evolution of the technique :
The steam enters in the fleet, first in a minority, then more openly in 1850 with the first steam ship of the line, designed by the French Dupuy de Lome. The "Napoleon" is its name, is a three-decker, the British look with irony and disdain. The size of boilers and coal bunkers, dirt, black smoke, everything is good to distrust them. In addition the mode of propulsion is then known impeller, fragile on a warship as directly bordered by the enemy. But nobody thinks so adapted to this new rare vapors of Commerce, the "worm" taken from the great Archimedes. It is well protected under the waterline. The Napoleon, who manages to have a steam propulsion without too much interference and maneuvering space on board, seems to be a good compromise.

The first practical application of this new type of vessel will take place during the Crimean War. The French ships, some mixed, and the English ships, all sailing, shelling the forts of the coast of Crimea. During these operations, the Russians are able to fly and the lack of wind prevented the ships to move freely. worse, the current approaches a disabled ship under fire Russians. The ship seems lost when the "Napoleon" occurs, throwing ropes, the unfortunate vessel and trailer out of range of enemy guns. The maneuver impressed the British who will remember. Other innovations are entering Paixhans like grenades, and the French have armored batteries before the letter, the four thunder. These are used successfully against the strong Kinburn.Ce batteries are armored with the idea is not new but will test this concept for future high seas battleships

Among the operations of the Civil War, we note the Battle of Hampton Roads, on the east coast in 1862, which opposes the first two monitors, the Confederate Merrimack battery sets, and the USS Monitor and its revolutionary single piece of artillery turret. John Coles, the creator of the turret and the lookout, and John Ericsson, contribute. The numerical inferiority of Southern Naval condemn a priori any major action, and they will attempt during the war to break the blockade and to trade war with privateers, including the famous Alabama and Shenandoah. Lack of "battles" they are usually dual or individual activities, such as the destruction of the USS Housatonic by the HS Hunley submarine. There will be great "battles" river as the bombardment of forts on the James River or the forcing of dams improvised by one side or the other. The battleships will be Kings River.

Then comes the battle of Lissa, in the Austro-Italian war of 1866. His main lesson was dramatically confirmed the relevance of the spur in naval combat. This feature had vanished from the architecture of warships since very ancient times, since the Romans, already longer believed in the virtues of the collision at the time of war against Carthage. With the arrival of the First Prev vapors and autonomy motive of these vessels, similar to the galleys, propelled by oars, we thought its reintroduction, but it was only with the first cuiassés that it was decided to resume with this accessory: It was indeed a very strong hull and propulsion reliable and powerful to be effective.

During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the number of the French navy exceeded by far those of the Prussian fleet. In fact apart from an aborted project of landing in Denmark, which would probably have resulted in a large-scale direct confrontation between the two navies, the only naval encounter took place November 9, 1870 at Havana between the Bouvet and the gunboat Meteor. It ended in a "tie" the two ships leaving out of action.